Nitric oxide deficiency, leukocyte activation, and resultant ischemia are crucial to the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy/ neuropathy — preventive potential of antioxidants, essential fatty acids, chromium, ginkgolides, and pentoxifylline

Nitric oxide deficiency, leukocyte activation, and resultant ischemia are crucial to the... Impaired microcirculatory perfusion appears to be crucial to the pathogenesis of both neuropathy and retinopathy in diabetics. This in turn reflects a hyperglycemically mediated perturbation of vascular endothelial function that entails overactivation of protein kinase C, reduced availability of nitric oxide, increased production of superoxide and endothelin, impaired insulin function, diminished synthesis of prostacyclin/PGE,, and increased activation and endothelial adherence of leukocytes. These dysfunctions may be addressed with a supplementation program that includes high-dose antioxidants, fish oil, gamma-linolenic acid, chromium, arginine, carnitine, and ginkgolides. Pharmaceuticals likely to be of benefit in this regard include pentoxifylline, probucol, replacement estrogens, and inhibitors of angiotensin converting enzyme and aldose reductase. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Medical Hypotheses Elsevier

Nitric oxide deficiency, leukocyte activation, and resultant ischemia are crucial to the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy/ neuropathy — preventive potential of antioxidants, essential fatty acids, chromium, ginkgolides, and pentoxifylline

Medical Hypotheses, Volume 50 (5) – May 1, 1998

Loading next page...
 
/lp/elsevier/nitric-oxide-deficiency-leukocyte-activation-and-resultant-ischemia-sNobvnOIuu
Publisher
Elsevier
Copyright
Copyright © 1998 Elsevier Ltd
ISSN
0306-9877
eISSN
1532-2777
D.O.I.
10.1016/S0306-9877(98)90217-1
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Impaired microcirculatory perfusion appears to be crucial to the pathogenesis of both neuropathy and retinopathy in diabetics. This in turn reflects a hyperglycemically mediated perturbation of vascular endothelial function that entails overactivation of protein kinase C, reduced availability of nitric oxide, increased production of superoxide and endothelin, impaired insulin function, diminished synthesis of prostacyclin/PGE,, and increased activation and endothelial adherence of leukocytes. These dysfunctions may be addressed with a supplementation program that includes high-dose antioxidants, fish oil, gamma-linolenic acid, chromium, arginine, carnitine, and ginkgolides. Pharmaceuticals likely to be of benefit in this regard include pentoxifylline, probucol, replacement estrogens, and inhibitors of angiotensin converting enzyme and aldose reductase.

Journal

Medical HypothesesElsevier

Published: May 1, 1998

References

  • Impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation in aortae from spontaneously diabetic rats
    Durante, W.; Sen, A.K.; Sunahara, F.A.
  • Impaired endothelium-dependent and independent vasodilation in patients with type 2 (non insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus
    McVeigh, G.E.; Brennan, G.M.; Johnston, G.D.
  • Hemodynamic actions of insulin
    Baron, A.D.
  • Active Na-K transport and the rate of ouabain binding: the effect of insulin and other stimuli on skeletal muscle and adipocytes
    Clausen, T.; Hansen, O.
  • Differential role of extra- and intracellular calcium in the release of EDRF and prostacyclin from cultured endothelial cells
    Lückhoff, A.; Pohl, U.; Mülsch, A.; Busse, R.
  • Insulin's effect on protein kinase C and diacylglycerol induced by diabetes and glucose in vascular tissues
    Inoguchi, T.; Xia, P.; Kunisaki, M.
  • Superoxide anion release by human endothelial cells: synergism between a phorbol ester and a calcium ionophore
    Matsubara, T.; Ziff, M.
  • Topical hyperglycemia rapidly suppresses EDRF-mediated vasodilation of normal rat arterioles
    Bohlen, H.G.; Lash, J.M.
  • Release of intact endothelium-derived relaxing factor depends on endothelial superoxide dismutase activity
    Mügge, A.; Elwell, J.H.; Peterson, T.E.; Harrison, D.G.
  • Superoxide dismutase recovers altered endothelium-dependent relaxation in diabetic rat aorta
    Hattori, Y.; Kawasaki, H.; Abe, K.; Kanno, M.
  • The effect of high glucose on polyol pathway activity and myoinositol metabolism in cultured human endothelial cells
    Hawthorne, G.C.; Bartlett, K.; Hetherington, C.S.; Alberti, K.G.M.M.
  • Aldose reductase inhibitors and the complications of diabetes mellitus
    Tomlinson, D.R.
  • Free radicals mediate endothelial cell dysfunction caused by elevated glucose
    Tesfamariam, B.; Cohen, R.A.
  • Comparative pharmacology of endothelium-derived relaxing factor, nitric oxide and prostacyclin in platelets
    Radomski, M.W.; Palmer, R.M.J.; Moncada, S.
  • Elevated plasma endothelin in patients with diabetes mellitus
    Takahashi, K.; Ghatei, M.A.; Lam, H.-C.
  • Effect of insulin treatment on prostacyclin in experimental diabetes
    Harrison, H.E.; Reece, A.H.; Johnson, M.
  • Improvement of diabetic control by continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy changes fatty acid composition of serum lipids and erythrocytes in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes
    Tilvis, R.S.; Helve, E.; Miettinen, T.A.
  • Phorbol ester stimulates PAF synthesis via the activation of protein kinase C in rat leukocytes
    Hayashi, M.; Imai, Y.; Oh-ishi, S.
  • Molecular mechanisms involved in superoxide-induced leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions in vivo
    Gaboury, J.P.; Anderson, D.C.; Kubes, P.
  • Blood rheology in diabetes mellitus
    MacRury, S.M.; Lowe, G.D.O.
  • Nerve blood flow in early experimental diabetes in rats: relation to conduction deficits
    Cameron, N.E.; Cotter, M.A.; Low, P.A.
  • The aetiology of diabetic neuropathy: the combined roles of metabolic and vascular defects
    Stevens, M.J.; Feldman, E.L.; Greene, D.A.
  • Endothelium: the main actor in the remodelling of the retinal microvasculature in diabetes
    Porta, M.
  • Dietary fish oil augments nitric oxide production or release in patients with type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus
    McVeigh, G.E.; Brennan, G.M.; Johnston, G.D.
  • Changes in blood lipids and fibrinogen with a note on safety in a long term study on the effects of n-3 fatty acids in subjects receiving fish oil supplements and followed for seven years
    Saynor, R.; Gillott, T.
  • Attenuation of endotoxin-induced intestinal microcirculatory damage by eicosapentanoic acid
    Miura, S.; Imaeda, H.; Shiozaki, H.
  • Reduction of free fatty acids may ameliorate risk factors associated with abdominal obesity
    McCarty, M.F.
  • Potential use of glutathione for the prevention and treatment of diabetic neuropathy in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat
    Bravenboer, B.; Kappelle, A.C.; Hamriers, F.P.T.
  • Anti-oxidant treatment prevents the development of peripheral nerve dysfunction in streptozotocin-diabetic rats
    Cameron, N.E.; Cotter, M.A.; Maxfield, E.K.
  • Impaired contraction and relaxation in aorta from streptozotocin-diabetic rats: role of polyol pathway
    Cameron, N.E.; Cotter, M.A.
  • Ouabain and responses to endothelium-dependent vasodilators in the human forearm
    Woolfson, R.G.; Benjamin, N.; Todd, S.D.
  • Gamma-linolenic acid in diabetic neuropathy
    Jamal, G.A.; Carmichael, H.; Weir, A.I.
  • The use of gamma linolenic acid in the prevention and treatment of diabetic neuropathy
    Jamal, G.A.
  • The effects of dietary treatment with essential fatty acids on sciatic nerve conduction and activity of the Na + /K + pump in streptozotocin-diabetic rats
    Lockett, M.J.; Tomlinson, D.R.
  • Complementary vascular-protective actions of magnesium and taurine: a rationale for magnesium taurate
    McCarty, M.F.

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.


DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Search

Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly

Organize

Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.

Access

Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

DeepDyve

Freelancer

DeepDyve

Pro

Price

FREE

$49/month
$360/year

Save searches from
Google Scholar,
PubMed

Create folders to
organize your research

Export folders, citations

Read DeepDyve articles

Abstract access only

Unlimited access to over
18 million full-text articles

Print

20 pages / month

PDF Discount

20% off