Nitric Oxide: A Review of Its Role in Retinal Function and Disease

Nitric Oxide: A Review of Its Role in Retinal Function and Disease Nitric oxide synthase (NOS), the enzyme that catalyzes the formation of nitric oxide from l -arginine, exists in three major isoforms, neuronal, endothelial, and immunologic. Neuronal and endothelial isoforms are constitutively expressed, and require calcium for activation. Both of these isoforms can be induced (i.e., new protein synthesis occurs) under appropriate conditions. The immunologic isoform is not constitutively expressed, and requires induction usually by immunologic activation; calcium is not necessary for its activation. Neuronal and immunologic NOS have been detected in the retina. Neuronal NOS may be responsible for producing nitric oxide in photoreceptors and bipolar cells. Nitric oxide stimulates guanylate cyclase of photoreceptor rod cells and increases calcium channel currents. In the retina of cats, NOS inhibition impairs phototransduction as assessed by the electroretinogram. Inducible nitric oxide synthase, found in Müller cells and in retinal pigment epithelium, may be involved in normal phagocytosis of the retinal outer segment, in infectious and ischemic processes, and in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. Nitric oxide contributes to basal tone in the retinal circulation. To date, findings are conflicting with respect to its role in retinal autoregulation. During glucose and oxygen deprivation, nitric oxide may increase blood flow and prevent platelet aggregation, but it may also mediate the toxic effects of excitatory amino acid release. This reactive, short-lived gas is involved in diverse processes within the retina, and its significance continues to be actively studied. Copyright © 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Vision Research Elsevier

Nitric Oxide: A Review of Its Role in Retinal Function and Disease

Loading next page...
 
/lp/elsevier/nitric-oxide-a-review-of-its-role-in-retinal-function-and-disease-eRt0Xp53WG
Publisher
Elsevier
Copyright
Copyright © 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd
ISSN
0042-6989
eISSN
1878-5646
D.O.I.
10.1016/0042-6989(96)00017-X
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Nitric oxide synthase (NOS), the enzyme that catalyzes the formation of nitric oxide from l -arginine, exists in three major isoforms, neuronal, endothelial, and immunologic. Neuronal and endothelial isoforms are constitutively expressed, and require calcium for activation. Both of these isoforms can be induced (i.e., new protein synthesis occurs) under appropriate conditions. The immunologic isoform is not constitutively expressed, and requires induction usually by immunologic activation; calcium is not necessary for its activation. Neuronal and immunologic NOS have been detected in the retina. Neuronal NOS may be responsible for producing nitric oxide in photoreceptors and bipolar cells. Nitric oxide stimulates guanylate cyclase of photoreceptor rod cells and increases calcium channel currents. In the retina of cats, NOS inhibition impairs phototransduction as assessed by the electroretinogram. Inducible nitric oxide synthase, found in Müller cells and in retinal pigment epithelium, may be involved in normal phagocytosis of the retinal outer segment, in infectious and ischemic processes, and in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. Nitric oxide contributes to basal tone in the retinal circulation. To date, findings are conflicting with respect to its role in retinal autoregulation. During glucose and oxygen deprivation, nitric oxide may increase blood flow and prevent platelet aggregation, but it may also mediate the toxic effects of excitatory amino acid release. This reactive, short-lived gas is involved in diverse processes within the retina, and its significance continues to be actively studied. Copyright © 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd

Journal

Vision ResearchElsevier

Published: Sep 1, 1996

References

  • Nitric oxide decreases in vitro phagocytosis of photoreceptor outer segments by bovine retinal pigmented epithelial cells
    Becquet, F; Courtois, Y; Goureau, O
  • Nitric oxide: A novel neuronal messenger
    Bredt, D.S; Snyder, S.H
  • Regulation of intracellular cyclic GMP concentration by light and calcium in electropermeabilized rod photoreceptors
    Coccia, V.J; Cote, R.H
  • Modulation of an electrical synapse between solitary pairs of catfish horizontal cells by dopamine and second messengers
    DeVries, S.H; Schwartz, E.A
  • Nitric oxide does not mediate autoregulation of retinal blood flow in newborn pig
    Gidday, J.M; Zhu, Y
  • Nitro- l -arginine attenuates hypercapnic cerebrovasodilation without affecting cerebral metabolism
    Iadecola, C; Xu, X
  • Pharmacology of the endothelium in ischemia-reperfusion and circulatory shock
    Lefer, A.M; Lefer, D.J
  • Coexpression of GMP-140 and PAF by endothelium stimulated by histamine or thrombin: A juxtacrine system for adhesion and activation of neutrophils
    Lorant, D.E; Patel, K.D; McIntyre, T.M; McEver, R.P; Prescott, S.M; Zimmerman, G.A
  • 7-Nitro indazole, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, exhibits anti-nociceptive activity in the mouse without increasing blood pressure
    Moore, P.K; Babbedge, R.C; Wallace, P; Gaffen, Z.A; Hart, S.L
  • New insights into the regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthesis
    Morris, S.M; Billiar, T.R
  • Effects of N G -nitro- l -arginine methyl ester on the cardiovascular system of the anaesthetized rabbit and on the cardiovascular response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone
    Seligsohn, E.E; Bill, A
  • Role of nitroxidergic nerve in dog retinal arterioles in vivo and arteries in vitro
    Toda, N; Kitamura, Y; Okamura, T
  • Excitatory amino acid-induced toxicity in chick retina: Amino acid release, histology, and the effects of chloride channel blockers
    Zeevalk, G.D; Hyndman, A.G; Nicklas, W.J

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.


DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Search

Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly

Organize

Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.

Access

Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

DeepDyve

Freelancer

DeepDyve

Pro

Price

FREE

$49/month
$360/year

Save searches from
Google Scholar,
PubMed

Create folders to
organize your research

Export folders, citations

Read DeepDyve articles

Abstract access only

Unlimited access to over
18 million full-text articles

Print

20 pages / month

PDF Discount

20% off