Nicotine alleviation of nicotine abstinence syndrome is naloxone-reversible

Nicotine alleviation of nicotine abstinence syndrome is naloxone-reversible In a recently introduced rodent model of nicotine abstinence syndrome, the observed signs closely resembled those typical of rat opiate abstinence syndrome. Signs were precipitated by naloxone and potently reversed by morphine as well as nicotine itself, suggesting that nicotine might relieve nicotine abstinence syndrome through releasing endogenous opioids. To test this hypothesis, rats were continuously infused subcutaneously (SC) for 7 days with 9 mg/kg per day nicotine tartrate. Each rat was observed for abstinence signs at 18 and 21 h after termination of infusion. Three minutes before the 21-h test, all rats received 0.35 mg/kg nicotine tartrate, SC; 5 min before the nicotine injection, subjects received 9 or 4.5 mg/kg naloxone or saline alone, SC. Abstinence reversal scores were calculated as signs at 21 h as a percentage of signs at 18 h. Naloxone prevented nicotine alleviation of nicotine abstinence in a dose-related manner. However, naloxone in the absence of a nicotine injection had no effect on abstinence severity in either highly dependent or moderately dependent rats (infused with 9 or 5 mg/kg per day nicotine tartrate, respectively). These results support the hypothesis that endogenous opioids play a role in nicotine dependence and abstinence. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior Elsevier

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Publisher
Elsevier
Copyright
Copyright © 1995 Elsevier Ltd
ISSN
0091-3057
eISSN
1873-5177
DOI
10.1016/0091-3057(95)00202-2
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

In a recently introduced rodent model of nicotine abstinence syndrome, the observed signs closely resembled those typical of rat opiate abstinence syndrome. Signs were precipitated by naloxone and potently reversed by morphine as well as nicotine itself, suggesting that nicotine might relieve nicotine abstinence syndrome through releasing endogenous opioids. To test this hypothesis, rats were continuously infused subcutaneously (SC) for 7 days with 9 mg/kg per day nicotine tartrate. Each rat was observed for abstinence signs at 18 and 21 h after termination of infusion. Three minutes before the 21-h test, all rats received 0.35 mg/kg nicotine tartrate, SC; 5 min before the nicotine injection, subjects received 9 or 4.5 mg/kg naloxone or saline alone, SC. Abstinence reversal scores were calculated as signs at 21 h as a percentage of signs at 18 h. Naloxone prevented nicotine alleviation of nicotine abstinence in a dose-related manner. However, naloxone in the absence of a nicotine injection had no effect on abstinence severity in either highly dependent or moderately dependent rats (infused with 9 or 5 mg/kg per day nicotine tartrate, respectively). These results support the hypothesis that endogenous opioids play a role in nicotine dependence and abstinence.

Journal

Pharmacology Biochemistry and BehaviorElsevier

Published: Jan 1, 1996

References

  • Naloxone precipitates nicotine abstinence syndrome in the rat
    Malin, D.H.; Lake, J.R.; Carter, V.A.; Cunningham, J.S.; Wilson, O.B.
  • The nicotine antagonist mecamylamine precipitates nicotine abstinence syndrome in the rat
    Malin, D.H.; Lake, J.R.; Carter, V.A.; Cunningham, J.S.; Wilson, O.B.
  • Naloxone does not affect cigarette smoking
    Nemeth-Coslett, R.; Griffiths, R.R.
  • Neuroendocrine reactivity to nicotine in smokers
    Pomerleau, O.F.; Fertig, J.B.; Seyler, E.; Jaffe, J.
  • Endogenous opioids inhibit oxytocin release during nicotine-stimulated secretion of vasopressin in man
    Seckl, J.R.; Johnson, M.; Shakespear, C.; Lightman, S.L.

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