This paper will start with a discussion of why probe yield (the number of good chips per silicon wafer) is so important to financial success in integrated circuit manufacturing. Actual data will be quoted and a numerical example shown. A simple model will be given to demonstrate the main factors influencing yield and the relationship between yield and reliability of the final product. In the last few years a range of new tools have been deployed in manufacturing, and these have accelerated the pace of yield improvement, thus increasing competitive pressures. These tools will be described, along with examples of their use. Topics will include in-line inspection and control, automatic defect classification and data mining techniques. A proposal is made to extend these tools to the improvement of reliability of products already in manufacturing by maintaining absolute chip identity throughout the entire wafer fabrication, packaging and final testing steps.
Microelectronics Reliability – Elsevier
Published: Jun 1, 1999
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