Neuroendocrine pharmacology of stress

Neuroendocrine pharmacology of stress Exposure to hostile conditions initiates responses organized to enhance the probability of survival. These coordinated responses, known as stress responses, are composed of alterations in behavior, autonomic function and the secretion of multiple hormones. The activation of the renin–angiotensin system and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical axis plays a pivotal role in the stress response. Neuroendocrine components activated by stressors include the increased secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine from the sympathetic nervous system and adrenal medulla, the release of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and vasopressin from parvicellular neurons into the portal circulation, and seconds later, the secretion of pituitary adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), leading to secretion of glucocorticoids by the adrenal gland. Corticotropin-releasing factor coordinates the endocrine, autonomic, behavioral and immune responses to stress and also acts as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in the amygdala, dorsal raphe nucleus, hippocampus and locus coeruleus, to integrate brain multi-system responses to stress. This review discussed the role of classical mediators of the stress response, such as corticotropin-releasing factor, vasopressin, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) and catecholamines. Also discussed are the roles of other neuropeptides/neuromodulators involved in the stress response that have previously received little attention, such as substance P, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, neuropeptide Y and cholecystokinin. Anxiolytic drugs of the benzodiazepine class and other drugs that affect catecholamine, GABA A , histamine and serotonin receptors have been used to attenuate the neuroendocrine response to stressors. The neuroendocrine information for these drugs is still incomplete; however, they are a new class of potential antidepressant and anxiolytic drugs that offer new therapeutic approaches to treating anxiety disorders. The studies described in this review suggest that multiple brain mechanisms are responsible for the regulation of each hormone and that not all hormones are regulated by the same neural circuits. In particular, the renin–angiotensin system seems to be regulated by different brain mechanisms than the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal system. This could be an important survival mechanism to ensure that dysfunction of one neurotransmitter system will not endanger the appropriate secretion of hormones during exposure to adverse conditions. The measurement of several hormones to examine the mechanisms underlying the stress response and the effects of drugs and lesions on these responses can provide insight into the nature and location of brain circuits and neurotransmitter receptors involved in anxiety and stress. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png European Journal of Pharmacology Elsevier

Loading next page...
 
/lp/elsevier/neuroendocrine-pharmacology-of-stress-ny8u8sDRBd
Publisher
Elsevier
Copyright
Copyright © 2003 Elsevier Science B.V.
ISSN
0014-2999
DOI
10.1016/S0014-2999(03)01285-8
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Exposure to hostile conditions initiates responses organized to enhance the probability of survival. These coordinated responses, known as stress responses, are composed of alterations in behavior, autonomic function and the secretion of multiple hormones. The activation of the renin–angiotensin system and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical axis plays a pivotal role in the stress response. Neuroendocrine components activated by stressors include the increased secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine from the sympathetic nervous system and adrenal medulla, the release of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and vasopressin from parvicellular neurons into the portal circulation, and seconds later, the secretion of pituitary adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), leading to secretion of glucocorticoids by the adrenal gland. Corticotropin-releasing factor coordinates the endocrine, autonomic, behavioral and immune responses to stress and also acts as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in the amygdala, dorsal raphe nucleus, hippocampus and locus coeruleus, to integrate brain multi-system responses to stress. This review discussed the role of classical mediators of the stress response, such as corticotropin-releasing factor, vasopressin, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) and catecholamines. Also discussed are the roles of other neuropeptides/neuromodulators involved in the stress response that have previously received little attention, such as substance P, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, neuropeptide Y and cholecystokinin. Anxiolytic drugs of the benzodiazepine class and other drugs that affect catecholamine, GABA A , histamine and serotonin receptors have been used to attenuate the neuroendocrine response to stressors. The neuroendocrine information for these drugs is still incomplete; however, they are a new class of potential antidepressant and anxiolytic drugs that offer new therapeutic approaches to treating anxiety disorders. The studies described in this review suggest that multiple brain mechanisms are responsible for the regulation of each hormone and that not all hormones are regulated by the same neural circuits. In particular, the renin–angiotensin system seems to be regulated by different brain mechanisms than the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal system. This could be an important survival mechanism to ensure that dysfunction of one neurotransmitter system will not endanger the appropriate secretion of hormones during exposure to adverse conditions. The measurement of several hormones to examine the mechanisms underlying the stress response and the effects of drugs and lesions on these responses can provide insight into the nature and location of brain circuits and neurotransmitter receptors involved in anxiety and stress.

Journal

European Journal of PharmacologyElsevier

Published: Feb 28, 2003

References

  • Comparative study in the rat of the actions of different types of stress on the release of 5-HT in raphe nuclei and forebrain areas
    Adell, A.; Casanovas, J.M.; Artigas, F.
  • Vasopressinergic regulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis: implications for stress adaptation
    Aguilera, G.; Rabadan-Diehl, C.
  • Acute immobilization stress and intraventricular injection of CRF suppress naloxone-induced LH release in ovariectomized estrogen-primed rats
    Akema, T.; Chiba, A.; Shinozaki, R.; Oshida, M.; Kimura, F.; Toyoda, J.
  • Escapable and inescapable stress differentially and selectively alter extracellular levels of 5-HT in the ventral hippocampus and dorsal periaqueductal gray of the rat
    Amat, J.; Matus-Amat, P.; Watkins, L.R.; Maier, S.F.
  • Prevention by 5-HT 1A receptor agonists of restraint stress-and yohimbine-induced release of cholecystokinin in the frontal cortex of the freely moving rat
    Becker, C.; Hamon, M.; Benoliel, J.J.
  • An introduction to neuronal cholecystokinin
    Beinfeld, M.C.
  • Vasopressin receptors
    Birnbaumer, M.
  • Dual adrenergic control of renin during nonhypotensive hemorrhage in conscious dogs
    Blair, M.L.; Hisa, H.; Sladek, C.D.; Radke, K.J.; Gengo, F.M.
  • Sympathetic activation cannot fully account for increased plasma renin levels during water deprivation
    Blair, M.L.; Woolf, P.D.; Felten, S.Y.
  • Modification of 5-HT neuron properties by sustained administration of the 5-HT 1A agonist gepirone: electrophysiological studies in the rat brain
    Blier, P.; de Montigny, C.
  • Adrenal cortical responses to vasoactive intestinal peptide in conscious hypophysectomized calves
    Bloom, S.R.; Edwards, A.V.; Jones, C.T.
  • Intra-amygdala injection of the substance P (NK(1) receptor) antagonist L-760735 inhibits neonatal vocalisations in guinea-pigs
    Boyce, S.; Smith, D.; Carlson, E.; Hewson, L.; Rigby, M.; O'Donnell, R.; Harrison, T.; Rupniak, N.M.
  • Biosynthesis of vasopressin and oxytocin
    Brownstein, M.J.
  • Neuroendocrine and behavioral responses and brain pattern of c-fos induction associated with audiogenic stress
    Campeau, S.; Watson, S.J.
  • Adrenergic control of renin in euhydrated and water-deprived conscious dogs
    Chen, Y.H.; Hisa, H.; Radke, K.J.; Izzo, J.L.; Sladek, C.D.; Blair, M.L.
  • GRK3 mediates desensitization of CRF1 receptors: a potential mechanism regulating stress adaptation
    Dautzenberg, F.M.; Braun, S.; Hauger, R.L.
  • Effects of chronic oestrogen replacement on stress-induced activation of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis control pathways
    Dayas, C.V.; Xu, Y.; Buller, K.M.; Day, T.A.
  • The role of VIP/PACAP receptor subtypes in spinal somatosensory processing in rats with an experimental peripheral mononeuropathy
    Dickinson, T.; Mitchell, R.; Robberecht, P.; Fleetwood-Walker, S.M.
  • Role of the dorsomedial hypothalamus in the cardiovascular response to stress
    DiMicco, J.A.; Stotz-Potter, E.H.; Monroe, A.J.; Morin, S.M.
  • BIBP 3226, the first selective neuropeptide Y1 receptor antagonist: a review of its pharmacological properties
    Doods, H.N.; Wieland, H.A.; Engel, W.; Eberlein, W.; Willim, K.D.; Entzeroth, M.; Wienen, W.; Rudolf, K.
  • Interaction of a vasopressin antagonist with vasopressin receptors in the septum of the rat brain
    Dorsa, D.M.; Brot, M.D.; Shewey, L.M.; Meyers, K.M.; Szot, P.; Miller, M.A.
  • Association of polymorphism of serotonin 2A receptor gene with suicidal ideation in major depressive disorder
    Du, L.S.; Bakish, D.; Lapierre, Y.D.; Ravindran, A.V.; Hrdina, P.D.
  • Brain catecholaminergic and tryptophan responses to restraint are attenuated by nitric oxide synthase inhibition
    Dunn, A.J.
  • Footshock-induced changes in brain catecholamines and indoleamines are not mediated by CRF or ACTH
    Dunn, A.J.
  • A single social defeat experience selectively stimulates the release of oxytocin, but not vasopressin, within the septal brain area of male rats
    Ebner, K.; Wotjak, C.T.; Landgraf, R.; Engelmann, M.
  • Splanchnic vasoconstriction in heat-stressed men: role of renin–angiotensin system
    Escourrou, P.; Freund, P.R.; Rowell, L.B.; Johnson, D.G.
  • Sex steroid control of mood, mental state and memory
    Fink, G.; Sumner, B.E.H.; McQueen, J.K.; Wilson, H.; Rosie, R.
  • Increased serotonin release in mice frontal cortex and hippocampus induced by acute physiological stressors
    Fujino, K.; Yoshitake, T.; Inoue, O.; Ibii, N.; Kehr, J.; Ishida, J.; Nohta, H.; Yamaguchi, M.
  • Differential effects of psychological stress on activation of the 5-hydroxytryptamine- and dopamine-containing neurons in the brain of freely moving rats
    Funada, M.; Hara, C.
  • The involvement of noradrenergic ascending pathways in the stress-induced activation of ACTH and corticosterone secretions is dependent on the nature of stressors
    Gaillet, S.; Lachuer, J.; Malaval, F.; Assenmacher, I.; Szafarczyk, A.
  • Chronic but not acute exposure to stress is associated with hypothalamic vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) release into median eminence
    Gavalda, A.; Benyassi, A.; Arancibia, S.; Armario, A.
  • Uncoupling of serotonergic and noradrenergic systems in depression: preliminary evidence from continuous cerebrospinal fluid sampling
    Geracioti, T.D.; Loosen, P.T.; Ekhator, N.N.; Schmidt, D.; Chambliss, B.; Baker, D.G.; Kasckow, J.W.; Richtand, N.M.; Keck, P.E.; Ebert, M.H.
  • Regulation of CCK mRNA expression in the rat brain by stress and treatment with sertraline, a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor
    Giardino, L.; Bettelli, C.; Pozza, M.; Calza, L.
  • The oxytocin receptor system: structure, function, and regulation
    Gimpl, G.; Fahrenholz, F.
  • Lack of effect of vasopressin replacement on renin hypersecretion in Brattleboro rats
    Golin, R.M.A.; Gotoh, E.; Keil, L.C.; Shackelford, R.L.; Ganong, W.F.
  • The 5-HT 1A receptor is not involved in emotional stress-induced rises in stress hormones
    Groenink, L.; Mos, J.; Van der Gugten, J.; Olivier, B.
  • Neuroendocrine effects of diazepam and flesinoxan in the stress-induced hyperthermia test in mice
    Groenink, L.; Van der Gugten, J.; Zethof, T.J.J.; Van der Heyden, J.A.M.; Olivier, B.
  • Elevated neuropeptide Y gene expression and release during hypoglycemic stress
    Han, S.; Chen, X.; Wu, Y.M.; Naes, L.; Westfall, T.
  • Role of neuropeptide Y in cold stress-induced hypertension
    Han, S.; Chen, X.; Cox, B.; Yang, C.L.; Wu, Y.M.; Naes, L.; Westfall, T.
  • Serotonin reuptake inhibitors reduce conditioned fear stress-induced freezing behavior in rats
    Hashimoto, S.; Inoue, T.; Koyama, T.
  • Effects of conditioned fear stress on serotonin neurotransmission and freezing behavior in rats
    Hashimoto, S.; Inoue, T.; Koyama, T.
  • The role of the adrenal gland in cytoprotection against stress-induced gastric ulcers in rats
    Hernandez, D.E.; Adcock, J.W.; Nemeroff, C.B.; Prange, J.
  • Molecular, pharmacological and functional diversity of 5-HT receptors
    Hoyer, D.; Hannon, J.P.; Martin, G.R.
  • Corticotropin-releasing factor binding sites in cortex of depressed suicides
    Hucks, D.; Lowther, S.; Crompton, M.R.; Katona, C.L.; Horton, R.W.
  • CRF activates autonomic nervous system and reduces natural killer cytotoxicity
    Irwin, M.; Hauger, R.L.; Brown, M.; Britton, K.T.
  • CCK mRNA expression in neuroendocrine CRH neurons is increased in rats subjected to an immune challenge
    Juaneda, C.; Lafon-Dubourg, P.; Ciofi, P.; Sarrieau, A.; Wenger, T.; Tramu, G.; Corio, M.
  • Identical primary sequence but different conformations of the bioactive regions of canine CCK-8 and CCK-58
    Keire, D.A.; Solomon, T.E.; Reeve, J.R.
  • NMR evidence for different conformations of the bioactive region of rat CCK-8 and CCK-58
    Keire, D.A.; Solomon, T.E.; Reeve, J.R.
  • An immuno-electron-microscopic study of the localization of VIP-like immunoreactivity in the adrenal gland of the rat
    Kondo, H.; Kuramoto, H.; Fujita, T.
  • Axon terminals containing PACAP- and VIP-immunoreactivity form synapses with CRF-immunoreactive neurons in the dorsolateral division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in the rat
    Kozicz, T.; Vigh, S.; Arimura, A.
  • Effects of restraint stress and spontaneous hypertension on neuropeptide Y neurones in the brainstem and arcuate nucleus
    Krukoff, T.L.; MacTavish, D.; Jhamandas, J.H.
  • Substance P inhibits the release of anterior pituitary adrenocorticotrophin via a central mechanism involving corticotrophin-releasing factor-containing neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus
    Larsen, P.J.; Jessop, D.; Patel, H.; Lightman, S.L.; Chowdrey, H.S.
  • Emotion: clues from the brain
    LeDoux, J.E.
  • Response of rat adrenal neuropeptide Y and tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA to acute stress is enhanced by long-term voluntary exercise
    Levenson, C.W.; Moore, J.B.
  • Central origins of substance P-like immunoreactive fibers and terminals in the spinal trigeminal caudal subnucleus in the rat
    Li, Y.Q.; Wang, Z.M.; Zheng, H.X.; Shi, J.W.
  • Chronic infusion of a CRH 1 receptor antisense oligodeoxynucleotide into the central nucleus of the amygdala reduced anxiety-related behavior in socially defeated rats
    Liebsch, G.; Landgraf, R.; Gerstberger, R.; Probst, J.C.; Wotjak, C.T.; Engelmann, M.; Holsboer, F.; Montkowski, A.
  • Differential behavioural effects of chronic infusion of CRH 1 and CRH 2 receptor antisense oligonucleotides into the rat brain
    Liebsch, G.; Landgraf, R.; Engelmann, M.; Lorscher, P.; Holsboer, F.
  • Effects of estradiol on corticosterone secretion in ovariectomized rats
    Lo, M.J.; Chang, L.L.; Wang, P.S.
  • A non-peptidic corticotropin releasing factor receptor antagonist attenuates fever and exhibits anxiolytic-like activity
    Lundkvist, J.; Chai, Z.; Teheranian, R.; Hasanvan, H.; Bartfai, T.; Jenck, F.; Widmer, U.; Moreau, J.L.
  • Defective regulation of vasopressin gene expression in Brattleboro rats
    Majzoub, J.A.; Carrazana, E.J.; Shulman, J.S.; Baker, K.J.; Emanuel, R.L.
  • Differential regulation of neuropeptide Y mRNA expression in the arcuate nucleus and locus coeruleus by stress and antidepressants
    Makino, S.; Baker, R.A.; Smith, M.A.; Gold, P.W.
  • Differential expression of two isoforms of the neurokinin-1 (substance P) receptor in vivo
    Mantyh, P.W.; Rogers, S.D.; Ghilardi, J.R.; Maggio, J.E.; Mantyh, C.R.; Vigna, S.R.
  • Exposure to inescapable but not escapable shock increases extracellular levels of 5-HT in the dorsal raphe nucleus of the rat
    Maswood, S.; Barter, J.E.; Watkins, L.R.; Maier, S.F.
  • Acute rise in corticosterone facilitates 5-HT 1A receptor-mediated behavioural responses
    Meijer, O.C.; Kortekaas, R.; Oitzl, M.S.; De Kloet, E.R.
  • The serotonergic and noradrenergic systems of the hippocampus: their interactions and the effects of antidepressant treatments
    Mongeau, R.; Blier, P.; de Montigny, C.
  • Role of 5-HT 2A and 5-HT 2A receptor subtypes in the two types of fear generated by the elevated T-maze
    Mora, P.O.; Netto, C.F.; Graeff, F.G.
  • Endogenous neurotensin regulates hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis activity and peptidergic neurons in the rat hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus
    Nicot, A.; Rowe, W.B.; De Kloet, E.R.; Betancur, C.; Jessop, D.S.; Lightman, S.L.; Quirion, R.; Rostene, W.; Berod, A.
  • Secretin, glucagon, gastric inhibitory polypeptide, parathyroid hormone, and related peptides in the regulation of the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis
    Nussdorfer, G.G.; Bahcelioglu, M.; Neri, G.; Malendowicz, L.K.
  • Anxiety-like behavior in mice lacking the angiotensin II type-2 receptor
    Okuyama, S.; Sakagawa, T.; Chaki, S.; Imagawa, Y.; Ichiki, T.; Inagami, T.
  • Differential effects of naloxone on neuroendocrine responses to fear-related emotional stress
    Onaka, T.; Yagi, K.
  • Neurotransmitter functions of mammalian tachykinins
    Otsuka, M.; Yoshioka, K.
  • Isolation and pharmacological characterization of two functional splice variants of corticotropin-releasing factor type 2 receptor from Tupaia belangeri
    Palchaudhuri, M.R.; Hauger, R.L.; Wille, S.; Fuchs, E.; Dautzenberg, F.M.
  • The role of ascending neuronal pathways in stress-induced release of noradrenaline in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of rats
    Palkovits, M.; Baffi, J.S.; Pacak, K.
  • Extracellular serotonin is decreased in the nucleus accumbens during withdrawal from cocaine self-administration
    Parsons, L.H.; Koob, G.F.; Weiss, F.
  • Extracellular serotonin is decreased in the nucleus accumbens during withdrawal from cocaine self-administration
    Parsons, L.H.; Koob, G.F.; Weiss, F.
  • The modulatory role of estrogens on corticotropin-releasing factor gene expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of ovariectomized rats: role of the adrenal gland
    Paulmyer-Lacroix, O.; Hery, M.; Pugeat, M.; Grino, M.
  • Pathways to the secretion of adrenocorticotropin: a view from the portal
    Plotsky, P.M.
  • Effect of non-peptide corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 1 antagonist on adrenocorticotropic hormone release and interleukin-1 receptors followed by stress
    Pournajafi, N.H.; Takao, T.; Nanamiya, W.; Asaba, K.; de Souza, E.B.; Hashimoto, K.
  • Endogenous neuropeptide Y mediates vasoconstriction during endotoxic and hemorrhagic shock
    Qureshi, N.U.; Dayao, E.K.; Shirali, S.; Zukowska-Grojec, Z.; Hauser, G.J.
  • Estrogen desensitizes 5-HT 1A receptors and reduces levels of G z , G i1 and G i3 proteins in the hypothalamus
    Raap, D.K.; DonCarlos, L.L.; Garcia, F.; Muma, N.A.; Wolf, W.A.; Battaglia, G.; Van de Kar, L.D.
  • Regulation of pituitary vasopressin V1b receptor mRNA during stress in the rat
    Rabadan-Diehl, C.; Lolait, S.J.; Aguilera, G.
  • Delayed stress-induced increase in tissue level of cholecystokinin in rat prefrontal cortex: modulation by microdialysis probe implantation and systemic ketamine
    Radu, D.; Brodin, E.; Weber, G.; Lindefors, N.
  • Strain differences in hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal activity and stress ulcer
    Redei, E.; Paré, W.P.; Aird, F.; Kluczynski, J.
  • Somatodendritic 5-HT 1A receptors are critically involved in the anxiolytic effects of 8-OH-DPAT
    Remy, S.M.; Schreiber, R.; Dalmus, M.; De Vry, J.
  • Corticotropin-releasing factor receptors 1 and 2 in anxiety and depression
    Reul, J.M.; Holsboer, F.
  • Neuronal activity and neuropeptide gene transcription in the brains of immune-challenged rats
    Rivest, S.; Laflamme, N.
  • Pharmacological blockade or genetic deletion of substance P (NK(1)) receptors attenuates neonatal vocalisation in guinea-pigs and mice
    Rupniak, N.M.; Carlson, E.C.; Harrison, T.; Oates, B.; Seward, E.; Owen, S.; De Felipe, C.; Hunt, S.; Wheeldon, A.
  • Effect of restraint stress on food intake and body weight is determined by time of day
    Rybkin, I.I.; Zhou, Y.; Volaufova, J.; Smagin, G.N.; Ryan, D.H.; Harris, R.B.
  • Stress hormones: good and bad
    Sapolsky, R.M.
  • Monoamine oxidase: from genes to behavior
    Shih, J.C.; Chen, K.; Ridd, M.J.
  • Reduction of substance P after chronic antidepressants treatment in the striatum, substantia nigra and amygdala of the rat
    Shirayama, Y.; Mitsushio, H.; Takashima, M.; Ichikawa, H.; Takahashi, K.
  • Differential effects of haloperidol on phencyclidine-induced reduction in substance P contents in rat brain regions
    Shirayama, Y.; Mitsushio, H.; Takahashi, K.; Nishikawa, T.
  • Region-specific changes in 5-HT 1A receptor-activated G-proteins in rat brain following chronic buspirone
    Sim-Selley, L.J.; Vogt, L.J.; Xiao, R.Y.; Childers, S.R.; Selley, D.E.
  • The role of CRF receptor subtypes in stress-induced behavioural responses
    Smagin, G.N.; Dunn, A.J.
  • Corticotropin-releasing factor administered into the locus coeruleus, but not the parabrachial nucleus, stimulates norepinephrine release in the prefrontal cortex
    Smagin, G.N.; Swiergiel, A.H.; Dunn, A.J.
  • Prevention of stress-induced weight loss by third ventricle CRF receptor antagonist
    Smagin, G.N.; Howell, L.A.; Redmann, S.; Ryan, D.H.; Harris, R.B.
  • Effect of microinjection of muscimol into the dorsomedial or paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus on air stress-induced neuroendocrine and cardiovascular changes in rats
    Stotz-Potter, E.H.; Morin, S.M.; DiMicco, J.A.
  • Hypothalamic integration: organization of the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei
    Swanson, L.W.; Sawchenko, P.E.
  • Antagonism of CRF 2 receptors produces anxiolytic behavior in animal models of anxiety
    Takahashi, L.K.; Ho, S.P.; Livanov, V.; Graciani, N.; Arneric, S.P.
  • Suppressed neuropeptide Y (NPY) mRNA in rat amygdala following restraint stress
    Thorsell, A.; Svensson, P.; Wiklund, L.; Sommer, W.; Ekman, R.; Heilig, M.
  • Leptin suppression of hypothalamic NPY expression and feeding, but not amygdala NPY expression and experimental anxiety
    Thorsell, A.; Caberlotto, L.; Rimondini, R.; Heilig, M.
  • Anxiogenic effect of central CCK administration is attenuated by chronic fluoxetine or ipsapirone treatment
    To, C.T.; Bagdy, G.
  • Multiple substrates for serotonergic modulation of rat locus coeruleus neurons and relationships with kainate receptors
    Van Bockstaele, E.J.
  • Amygdaloid corticotropin-releasing factor targets locus coeruleus dendrites: substrate for the co-ordination of emotional and cognitive limbs of the stress response
    Van Bockstaele, E.J.; Colago, E.E.; Valentino, R.J.
  • Neuroendocrine pharmacology of serotonergic (5-HT) neurons
    Van de Kar, L.D.
  • Forebrain pathways mediating stress-induced renin secretion
    Van de Kar, L.D.
  • Immunoelectronmicroscopic localization of vasopressin in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus
    Van Leeuwen, F.W.; Swaab, D.F.; de Raay, C.
  • The cholecystokinin-B receptor antagonist CI-988 failed to affect CCK-4 induced symptoms in panic disorder patients
    Van Megen, H.J.; Westenberg, H.G.; Den Boer, J.A.; Slaap, B.; Es-Radhakishun, F.; Pande, A.C.
  • Effect of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluvoxamine on CCK-4 induced panic attacks
    Van Megen, H.J.; Westenberg, H.G.; Den Boer, J.A.; Slaap, B.; Scheepmakers, A.
  • Effect of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluvoxamine on CCK-4 induced panic attacks
    Van Megen, H.J.G.M.; Westenberg, H.G.M.; Den Boer, J.A.; Slaap, B.; Scheepmakers, A.
  • Possible association of a cholecystokinin promotor polymorphism (CCK-36CT) with panic disorder
    Wang, Z.; Valdes, J.; Noyes, R.; Zoega, T.; Crowe, R.R.
  • Evaluation of the role for prolactin-releasing peptide in prolactin secretion induced by ether stress and suckling in the rat: comparison with vasoactive intestinal peptide
    Watanobe, H.; Schioth, H.B.; Wikberg, J.E.; Suda, T.
  • A benzodiazepine, chlordiazepoxide, blocks vasopressin and oxytocin release after footshocks but not osmotic stimulus in the rat
    Yagi, K.; Onaka, T.
  • Estrogen alters proenkephalin RNAs in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus following stress
    Yukhananov, R.Y.; Handa, R.J.
  • Long-term fluoxetine produces behavioral anxiolytic effects without inhibiting neuroendocrine responses to conditioned stress in rats
    Zhang, Y.; Raap, D.K.; Garcia, F.; Serres, F.; Ma, Q.; Battaglia, G.; Van de Kar, L.D.
  • Effects of the high affinity corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 antagonist R121919 in major depression: the first 20 patients treated
    Zobel, A.W.; Nickel, T.; Kunzel, H.E.; Ackl, N.; Sonntag, A.; Ising, M.; Holsboer, F.
  • Role of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in cardiovascular responses to stress
    Zukowska-Grojec, Z.; Vaz, A.C.
  • Stress-induced mesenteric vasoconstriction in rats is mediated by neuropeptide Y Y1 receptors
    Zukowska-Grojec, Z.; Dayao, E.K.; Karwatowska-Prokopczuk, E.; Hauser, G.J.; Doods, H.N.

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.


DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Search

Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly

Organize

Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.

Access

Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

DeepDyve

Freelancer

DeepDyve

Pro

Price

FREE

$49/month
$360/year

Save searches from
Google Scholar,
PubMed

Create folders to
organize your research

Export folders, citations

Read DeepDyve articles

Abstract access only

Unlimited access to over
18 million full-text articles

Print

20 pages / month

PDF Discount

20% off