In kainate-induced neurotoxicity, the stimulation of kainate receptors results in the activation of phospholipase A 2 and a rapid release of arachidonic acid from neural membrane glycerophospholipids. This process raises arachidonic acid levels and produces alterations in membrane fluidity and permeability. These result in calcium influx and stimulation of lipolysis and proteolysis, production of lipid peroxides, depletion of ATP, and loss of reduced glutathione. As well as the above neurochemical changes, stimulation of ornithine decarboxylase, altered activities of protein kinase C isozymes, and expression of immediate early genes, cytokines, growth factors, and heat shock proteins have also been reported. Kainate-induced stimulation of arachidonic acid release, calcium influx, accumulation of lipid peroxides and products of their decomposition, especially 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), along with alterations in cellular redox state and ATP depletion may play important roles in kainate-induced cell death. Thus the consequences of altered glycerophospholipid metabolism in kainate-induced neurotoxicity can lead to cell death. Kainate-induced neurotoxicity initiates apoptotic as well as necrotic cell death depending upon the intensity of oxidative stress and abnormality in mitochondrial function. Other neurochemical changes may be related to synaptic reorganization following kainate-induced seizures and may be involved in recapitulation of hippocampal development and synaptogenesis.
Brain Research Reviews – Elsevier
Published: Dec 1, 2001
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera
Read and print from thousands of top scholarly journals.
Already have an account? Log in
Bookmark this article. You can see your Bookmarks on your DeepDyve Library.
Copy and paste the desired citation format or use the link below to download a file formatted for EndNote
EndNoteExport to EndNote
ok to continue