Olfactory deficits are observed early in the course of chronic neurological disorders including Alzheimer׳s disease (AD). Estrogen treatment in post-menopausal women reduced the incidence of olfactory dysfunction, raising the possibility that estrogen treatment can cure olfactory deficits in preclinical stages of AD. In this study, we examined the estradiol׳s effects on neurite outgrowth in explant cultures of mouse olfactory epithelium (OE). We found that neurons in OE cultures treated with 100pM 17-β estradiol (estradiol) had significantly longer neurite outgrowth than cultures treated with ethanol alone (vehicle). The OE neurons expressed estrogen receptors alpha (ERα) and ER beta (ERβ). Estrogen treatment upregulated both ERα and ERβ expression in OE culture. Treatment of OE cultures with propyl pyrazole triol (PPT), a selective agonist for ERα increased neurite outgrowth to comparable extent as estradiol treatment. In contrast, 2,3-bis-4-hydroxyphenyl (DPN), a specific agonist for ERβ, had no effect on neurite outgrowth. Furthermore, estradiol treatment increased neurite outgrowth in OE cultures derived from ERβ-deficient/knockout mice and wild-type littermates, but not in ERα-deficient/knockout mice. These data suggest that ERα mediates the neurite outgrowth promoting effects of estradiol in OE cultures. We propose that olfactory dysfunction in chronic neurological disorders, where estrogen deficiency is a risk factor, is an indicator of compromised axonal regeneration of olfactory sensory neurons.
Brain Research – Elsevier
Published: Oct 22, 2015
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera