The problem of combating caries</h5> Dental caries (see Glossary ) remains the most common and widespread biofilm-dependent oral disease, resulting in the destruction of tooth structure by acidic attack from cariogenic bacteria, such as Streptococcus mutans , Streptococcus sobrinus , and Lactobacillus spp.. These bacteria are present in aggregates of microorganism cells attached to each other and to a tooth surface (i.e., oral biofilm or dental plaque) [1,2] . Thus, caries is a site-specific and dynamic disease resulting from the imbalance in the physiologic equilibrium between mineral ions present in the tooth structure and dental plaque fluid represented by demineralization and remineralization processes  . Dips in the pH (<5.5) of the oral biofilm due to the action of bacterial acids can cause the tooth to lose calcium and phosphate (from enamel and dentin) causing tooth demineralization. In the remineralization process calcium and phosphate lost by the enamel may be deposited into the tooth from dental plaque fluid or by direct action of salivary calcium and phosphate soon after the biofilm is removed by toothbrushing  . However, the amount of ions gained is lower than the amount lost and the net result is a small mineral loss.
Trends in Biotechnology – Elsevier
Published: Aug 1, 2013
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