1 Introduction</h5> Arsenic, a ubiquitous element found in the environment, is well-known and extensively concerned with high toxicity and carcinogenicity. It is introduced into the water and groundwater through a combination of natural processes such as weathering reactions, dissolution of minerals and biological activity as well as through anthropogenic activities such as mining, agriculture and manufacturing ( Cullen and Reimer, 1989 ; Smedley and Kinniburgh, 2002 ). Elevated arsenic levels in groundwater near human populations have been reported in many countries and regions throughout the world, which poses a significant threat to human health ( Mandal and Suzuki, 2002 ; Smedley and Kinniburgh, 2002 ). To abate health problems associated with arsenic in drinking water, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended a more stringent limit of 10 μg L −1 as the maximum permissible arsenic level. Therefore, developing economical, effective and reliable treatment technique for arsenic removal from groundwater is critical and has gained considerable attention in recent years.</P>Arsenic occurs mostly in two inorganic forms as oxyanions of arsenate [As(V)] and arsenite [As(III)] in groundwater, with the latter being more toxic, soluble, and mobile ( Goddington, 1986 ). Under oxidizing conditions, negatively charged H 2 AsO 4 −
Water Research – Elsevier
Published: Aug 1, 2013
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