Ozonation is known for removing trace organic contaminants (TrOCs) from secondary wastewater effluent. However, its implementation and overall efficiency on a broad scale depends on effluent characteristics, which can differ both in time as well as between different treatment plants (nowadays referred to as water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs)). Therefore, water quality was assessed over time at 15 different Belgian sampling locations to increase the understanding of effluent variability in view of online control of the tertiary ozonation step. Conventional and surrogate parameters as well as those specifically related to tertiary ozonation (e.g. instantaneous ozone demand) were assessed. Little differences between the different locations were found for spectral measurements (e.g. UVA254 or fluorescence). The small amount of observed outliers was clearly site or event dependent. A lower variability (for spectral measurements) is advantageous in simplifying the development and application of a generic control framework based on these spectral measurements. In addition, also variations in TrOC concentration levels seemed to be small, as the concentration of most individual compounds resided within one order of magnitude over multiple sampling events at two different WRRFs. The combination of this low variability in TrOC levels in the effluent before ozonation with a control strategy using a TrOC removal efficiency set-point, allows to indicatively assess absolute TrOC levels after ozonation. In contrast, significant variations between different plants (especially smaller sized plants) were observed and could be related to the conventional water quality parameters alkalinity (correlated with the electrical conductivity) and pH which are both known to have an influence on the ozonation process. This confirms that a differential dosing control strategy (i.e. accounting for the matrix reactivity) should be applied instead of one solely based on the (organic) effluent load before ozonation.
Science of the Total Environment – Elsevier
Published: Jun 1, 2018
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera