Montmorillonite dissolution kinetics: Experimental and reactive transport modeling interpretation

Montmorillonite dissolution kinetics: Experimental and reactive transport modeling interpretation The dissolution kinetics of K-montmorillonite was studied at 25 °C, acidic pH (2–4) and 0.01 M ionic strength by means of well-mixed flow-through experiments. The variations of Si, Al and Mg over time resulted in high releases of Si and Mg and Al deficit, which yielded long periods of incongruent dissolution before reaching stoichiometric steady state. This behavior was caused by simultaneous dissolution of nanoparticles and cation exchange between the interlayer K and released Ca, Mg and Al and H. Since Si was only involved in the dissolution reaction, it was used to calculate steady-state dissolution rates, RSi, over a wide solution saturation state (ΔGr ranged from −5 to −40 kcal mol−1).The effects of pH and the degree of undersaturation (ΔGr) on the K-montmorillonite dissolution rate were determined using RSi. Employing dissolution rates farthest from equilibrium, the catalytic pH effect on the K-montmorillonite dissolution rate was expressed as Rdiss = k·aH0.56±0.05 whereas using all dissolution rates, the ΔGr effect was expressed as a non-linear f(ΔGr) function Rdiss=k·1-exp-3.8×10-4·|ΔGr|RT2.13The functionality of this expression is similar to the equations reported for dissolution of Na-montmorillonite at pH 3 and 50 °C (Metz, 2001) and Na-K-Ca-montmorillonite at pH 9 and 80 °C (Cama et al., 2000; Marty et al., 2011), which lends support to the use of a single f(ΔGr) term to calculate the rate over the pH range 0–14. Thus, we propose a rate law that also accounts for the effect of pOH and temperature by using the pOH-rate dependence and the apparent activation energy proposed by Rozalén et al. (2008) and Amram and Ganor (2005), respectively, and normalizing the dissolution rate constant with the edge surface area of the K-montmorillonite.1D reactive transport simulations of the experimental data were performed using the Crunchflow code (Steefel et al., 2015) to quantitatively interpret the evolution of the released cations and to elucidate the stoichiometry of the reaction. After the implementation of (i) the obtained f(ΔGr) term in the K-montmorillonte dissolution rate law, (ii) a fraction of highly reactive particles and surfaces and (iii) the cation exchange reactions between the interlayer K+ and the released Al3+, Mg2+, Ca2+ and H+, the simulations agreed with the experimental concentrations at the outlet. This match indicates that fast dissolution of fine particles and highly reactive sites and exchange between the interlayer K and dissolved structural cations (Al and Mg) and protons are responsible for the temporary incongruency of the K-montmorillonite dissolution reaction. As long as dissolution of the bulk sample predominates, the reaction is stoichiometric. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta Elsevier

Montmorillonite dissolution kinetics: Experimental and reactive transport modeling interpretation

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Publisher
Elsevier
Copyright
Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd
ISSN
0016-7037
eISSN
1872-9533
D.O.I.
10.1016/j.gca.2018.01.039
Publisher site
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Abstract

The dissolution kinetics of K-montmorillonite was studied at 25 °C, acidic pH (2–4) and 0.01 M ionic strength by means of well-mixed flow-through experiments. The variations of Si, Al and Mg over time resulted in high releases of Si and Mg and Al deficit, which yielded long periods of incongruent dissolution before reaching stoichiometric steady state. This behavior was caused by simultaneous dissolution of nanoparticles and cation exchange between the interlayer K and released Ca, Mg and Al and H. Since Si was only involved in the dissolution reaction, it was used to calculate steady-state dissolution rates, RSi, over a wide solution saturation state (ΔGr ranged from −5 to −40 kcal mol−1).The effects of pH and the degree of undersaturation (ΔGr) on the K-montmorillonite dissolution rate were determined using RSi. Employing dissolution rates farthest from equilibrium, the catalytic pH effect on the K-montmorillonite dissolution rate was expressed as Rdiss = k·aH0.56±0.05 whereas using all dissolution rates, the ΔGr effect was expressed as a non-linear f(ΔGr) function Rdiss=k·1-exp-3.8×10-4·|ΔGr|RT2.13The functionality of this expression is similar to the equations reported for dissolution of Na-montmorillonite at pH 3 and 50 °C (Metz, 2001) and Na-K-Ca-montmorillonite at pH 9 and 80 °C (Cama et al., 2000; Marty et al., 2011), which lends support to the use of a single f(ΔGr) term to calculate the rate over the pH range 0–14. Thus, we propose a rate law that also accounts for the effect of pOH and temperature by using the pOH-rate dependence and the apparent activation energy proposed by Rozalén et al. (2008) and Amram and Ganor (2005), respectively, and normalizing the dissolution rate constant with the edge surface area of the K-montmorillonite.1D reactive transport simulations of the experimental data were performed using the Crunchflow code (Steefel et al., 2015) to quantitatively interpret the evolution of the released cations and to elucidate the stoichiometry of the reaction. After the implementation of (i) the obtained f(ΔGr) term in the K-montmorillonte dissolution rate law, (ii) a fraction of highly reactive particles and surfaces and (iii) the cation exchange reactions between the interlayer K+ and the released Al3+, Mg2+, Ca2+ and H+, the simulations agreed with the experimental concentrations at the outlet. This match indicates that fast dissolution of fine particles and highly reactive sites and exchange between the interlayer K and dissolved structural cations (Al and Mg) and protons are responsible for the temporary incongruency of the K-montmorillonite dissolution reaction. As long as dissolution of the bulk sample predominates, the reaction is stoichiometric.

Journal

Geochimica et Cosmochimica ActaElsevier

Published: Apr 15, 2018

References

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