Retinoic acid receptors (RAR) and retinoid X receptors (RXR) are ligand-mediated transcription factors that synchronize intricate signaling networks in metazoans. Dimer formation between these two nuclear receptors mediates the recruitment of co-regulatory complexes coordinating the progression of signaling cascades during developmental and regenerative events. In the present study we identified and characterized the receptors for retinoic acid in the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima; a model system capable of regenerative organogenesis during adulthood. Molecular characterizations revealed the presence of three isoforms of RAR and two of RXR as a consequence of alternative splicing events. Various analyses including: primary structure sequencing, phylogenetic analysis, protein domain prediction, and multiple sequence alignment further confirmed their identity. Semiquantitative reverse transcription PCR analysis of each receptor isoform herein identified showed that the retinoid receptors are expressed in all tissues sampled: the mesenteries, respiratory trees, muscles, gonads, and the digestive tract. During regenerative organogenesis two of the receptors (RAR-L and RXR-T) showed differential expression in the posterior segment while RAR-S is differentially expressed in the anterior segment of the intestine. This work presents the first description of the components relaying the signaling for retinoic acid within this model system.
Gene – Elsevier
Published: May 15, 2018
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 12 million articles from more than
10,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Read as many articles as you need. Full articles with original layout, charts and figures. Read online, from anywhere.
Keep up with your field with Personalized Recommendations and Follow Journals to get automatic updates.
It’s easy to organize your research with our built-in tools.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera