1 Introduction</h5> Micro-Combined generation of Heat and Power (Micro-CHP) is a technology used to generate both heat and electricity on demand, usually within households and other individual buildings. Micro-CHPs, as part of micro-generation technologies, are reported to create environmental, economic and social benefits, such as reduction in greenhouse emission and operational cost, enhancing energy generation efficiency and energy supply security, and fostering a sense of responsibility on users [1–4] .</P>In recent years, micro-CHPs have been investigated by a number of researchers with respect to the operating strategies [5,10] , economics [6,7,11] , and energy and emission savings [7–11] . Operating strategies to maximise economic benefits and to minimise emissions have been studied by Hawkes and Leach  and Ren and Gao  . Pilavachi et al.  studied multi-criteria evaluation of CHP systems using a sustainability index template. Several types of technology were assessed for investment, fuel, heat and electricity cost, and efficiency, CO 2 generation and footprint. Bianchi et al.  modelled the energy impact of micro-CHP systems and analysed the profitability and Primary Energy Saving Index (PES) based on thermal and electrical efficiency values for micro-CHPs, boiler and electricity generation and distribution, ignoring gas distribution. Peacock
Applied Energy – Elsevier
Published: Feb 1, 2014
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