The effects of economic growth on the environment have received increased attention as global warming and other environmental problems become more serious. Many empirical studies explain the nexus between carbon dioxide emissions and economic growth with such models as the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) theory. However, the assumptions of these models have never received strict verification with a large available data set and therefore may not be appropriate to describe the relationship. In this study, the nexus is modeled for 67 countries from 1971 to 2010 using a novel symbolic regression method. From the experimental results, several conclusions as follows could be reached. Firstly, there is no universal model fitting every country, and symbolic regression could discover a set of reasonable models for a specific country or region. Secondly, four models, including the inverted N-shaped, M-shaped, inverted U-shaped and monotonically increasing, are frequently found without domain experts’ intervention in these countries, whereas the M-shaped model has received little attention in previous studies but exhibits promising performance. Thirdly, the relationship is diversified due to the difference of regions and economic development, where developed countries generally follow the inverted N-shaped and M-shaped models to explain the relationship, whereas developing countries are more likely to refer to the inverted N-shaped, inverted U-shaped and monotonically increasing models. Finally, several policy suggestions are presented.
Energy Policy – Elsevier
Published: Nov 1, 2015
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 12 million articles from more than
10,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Read as many articles as you need. Full articles with original layout, charts and figures. Read online, from anywhere.
Keep up with your field with Personalized Recommendations and Follow Journals to get automatic updates.
It’s easy to organize your research with our built-in tools.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera