This study contributes a new model to simulate the evaporation and dispersion of sputum droplets from human coughs or sneezes. It is the first time different chemical components have been included in order to estimate the transport of sputum or similar biological droplets. This modified model demonstrates the ability to describe real-world phenomena that the widely used single droplet model lacks. Evaporation and dispersion of airborne sputum droplets originating from a human cough are simulated using this model combined with an initially buoyant turbulent jet. Constituents of sputum droplets such as NaCl, amino acids, carbohydrates, and lipids are included. Effects of these chemical components on evaporation rate, velocity, and temperature of droplets are investigated in detail. The results obtained for sputum droplets will provide a perspective of what conditions the viruses within a droplet might face upon being ejected from the mouth during a cough. Finally, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and probability density function (PDF) techniques were used to complement the new model with a simulation of a cough jet and the dynamics of droplet nuclei in confined spaces. Numerical results indicate that a 10 microns sputum droplet will evaporate to become a droplet nucleus (3.5 microns) in 0.55 s at 0.8 or 80% RH, in 0.3 s at 0.5 or 50% RH, and in 0.25 s at 0.2 or 20% RH. The droplet temperature decreases rapidly from human body temperature to room temperature, which may affect the viability of any carried virus.
Building and Environment – Elsevier
Published: Oct 1, 2011
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera