Modeling the contribution of point sources and non-point sources to Thachin River water pollution

Modeling the contribution of point sources and non-point sources to Thachin River water pollution Major rivers in developing and emerging countries suffer increasingly of severe degradation of water quality. The current study uses a mathematical Material Flow Analysis (MMFA) as a complementary approach to address the degradation of river water quality due to nutrient pollution in the Thachin River Basin in Central Thailand. This paper gives an overview of the origins and flow paths of the various point- and non-point pollution sources in the Thachin River Basin (in terms of nitrogen and phosphorus) and quantifies their relative importance within the system. The key parameters influencing the main nutrient flows are determined and possible mitigation measures discussed. The results show that aquaculture (as a point source) and rice farming (as a non-point source) are the key nutrient sources in the Thachin River Basin. Other point sources such as pig farms, households and industries, which were previously cited as the most relevant pollution sources in terms of organic pollution, play less significant roles in comparison. This order of importance shifts when considering the model results for the provincial level. Crosschecks with secondary data and field studies confirm the plausibility of our simulations. Specific nutrient loads for the pollution sources are derived; these can be used for a first broad quantification of nutrient pollution in comparable river basins. Based on an identification of the sensitive model parameters, possible mitigation scenarios are determined and their potential to reduce the nutrient load evaluated. A comparison of simulated nutrient loads with measured nutrient concentrations shows that nutrient retention in the river system may be significant. Sedimentation in the slow flowing surface water network as well as nitrogen emission to the air from the warm oxygen deficient waters are certainly partly responsible, but also wetlands along the river banks could play an important role as nutrient sinks. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Science of the Total Environment Elsevier

Modeling the contribution of point sources and non-point sources to Thachin River water pollution

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Publisher
Elsevier
Copyright
Copyright © 2009 Elsevier B.V.
ISSN
0048-9697
eISSN
1879-1026
D.O.I.
10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.05.007
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Major rivers in developing and emerging countries suffer increasingly of severe degradation of water quality. The current study uses a mathematical Material Flow Analysis (MMFA) as a complementary approach to address the degradation of river water quality due to nutrient pollution in the Thachin River Basin in Central Thailand. This paper gives an overview of the origins and flow paths of the various point- and non-point pollution sources in the Thachin River Basin (in terms of nitrogen and phosphorus) and quantifies their relative importance within the system. The key parameters influencing the main nutrient flows are determined and possible mitigation measures discussed. The results show that aquaculture (as a point source) and rice farming (as a non-point source) are the key nutrient sources in the Thachin River Basin. Other point sources such as pig farms, households and industries, which were previously cited as the most relevant pollution sources in terms of organic pollution, play less significant roles in comparison. This order of importance shifts when considering the model results for the provincial level. Crosschecks with secondary data and field studies confirm the plausibility of our simulations. Specific nutrient loads for the pollution sources are derived; these can be used for a first broad quantification of nutrient pollution in comparable river basins. Based on an identification of the sensitive model parameters, possible mitigation scenarios are determined and their potential to reduce the nutrient load evaluated. A comparison of simulated nutrient loads with measured nutrient concentrations shows that nutrient retention in the river system may be significant. Sedimentation in the slow flowing surface water network as well as nitrogen emission to the air from the warm oxygen deficient waters are certainly partly responsible, but also wetlands along the river banks could play an important role as nutrient sinks.

Journal

Science of the Total EnvironmentElsevier

Published: Aug 15, 2009

References

  • Combined use of the EPA-QUAL2E simulation model and factor analysis to assess the source apportionment of point and non point loads of nutrients to surface waters
    Azzellino, A.; Salvettia, R.; Vismaraa, R.; Bonomo, L.
  • Global renewable energies: a dynamic study of implementation time, greenhouse gas emissions and financial needs
    Bader, H.P.; Scheidegger, R.; Real, M.
  • Practical identifiability of large environmental simulation models
    Brun, R.; Reichert, P.; Künsch, H.R.
  • Rice paddy or shrimp pond: tough decisions in rural Thailand
    Flaherty, M.; Vandergeest, P.; Miller, P.
  • Nutrient budgets in intensive shrimp ponds: implications for sustainability
    Funge-Smith, S.J.; Briggs, M.R.P.
  • Modelling cadmium flows in Australia on the basis of a substance flow analysis
    Kwonpongsagoon, S.; Bader, H.P.; Scheidegger, R.
  • Assessing nutrient flows in septic tanks by eliciting expert judgement: a promising method in the context of developing countries
    Montangero, A.; Belevi, H.
  • Optimising water and phosphorus management in the environmental sanitation systems of Hanoi, Vietnam
    Montangero, A.; Cau, L.N.; Viet Anh, N.; Tuan, V.D.; Nga, P.T.; Belevi, H.
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    Pfister, F.; Bader, H.P.; Scheidegger, R.; Baccini, P.
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