This review deals with milk derived peptides related to hypertension reduction, especially those from Calpis sour milk fermented by a starter containing Lactobacillus helveticus and Saccaharomyces cerevisiae . The inhibitory activity of angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) in milk increased during fermentation with the sour milk starter. Inhibitors were purified and identified as Val–Pro–Pro and Ile–Pro–Pro. These amino acid sequences are found in the primary structure of β -casein and κ -casein. Administration of sour milk or the chemically-synthesized tripeptides to spontaneously hypertensive rats resulted in similar reductions in blood pressure. The tripeptides were found in the aorta of spontaneously hypertensive rats, after oral administration of the sour milk. A clinical study demonstrated that the blood pressure of hypertensive human subjects was significantly reduced following daily ingestion of 95 mL of the sour milk for two months.
International Dairy Journal – Elsevier
Published: May 1, 1998
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