Microcystin-leucine arginine (MC-LR) causes testicular inflammation and hinders spermatogenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the immune responses to MC-LR in the testis have not been elucidated in detail. In this study, we show that MC-LR induced immune responses in Sertoli cells (SC), germ cells (GC), and Leydig cells (LC) via activating phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), resulting in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 (CXCL10). The observed effects were attributed to reduced activity of protein phosphatases 2A (PP2A) as a result of binding of MC-LR to the catalytic subunit of PP2A in SC and GC. By contrast, innate immune responses were triggered by Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in LC because MC-LR could not enter into the LC and subsequently inhibit the PP2A activity. PI3K/AKT/NF-κB were also activated in SC, GC, and LC in vivo, with the enrichment of TNF-α, IL-6, MCP-1, and CXCL10 in the testis. Following chronic exposure, MC-LR-treated mice exhibited decreased sperm counts and abnormal sperm morphology. Our data demonstrate that MC-LR can activate innate immune responses in testicular cells, which provides novel insights to explore the mechanism associated with MC-LR-induced orchitis.
Environmental Pollution – Elsevier
Published: Oct 1, 2017
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera