Microbial cellulases: Engineering, production and applications

Microbial cellulases: Engineering, production and applications 1 Introduction</h5> Cellulose is the major cell-wall polysaccharides of plants. It is entangled with lignin and hemicellulose carbohydrate polymers. Cellulose is a water-insoluble polymer composed of repeated units of β- d -glucopyranose interlinked by β-1,4 glycosidic bonds [1] . In cellulose polymer, each glucan chain length can reach up to 25,000 glucose residues. At the microscopic level 15–45 glucan chains combine to form a microfibril in a regular crystalline arrangement. A group of these microfibrils form a macrofibril or fiber/cellulose fibril or fiber. In its native state cellulose exists as a paracrystalline form with alternative crystalline and amorphous regions. Additionally, in few cases irregularities such as twists or voids exist in the cellulose fibers which increase their total surface area. Due to its crystalline nature cellulose is resistant to degradation [1] .</P>Plant biomass contains significant amount of cellulose which can be exploited as a valuable carbon source for production of value-added chemicals. To attain this task, depolymerization of cellulose into glucose is a prerequisite for microbial fermentation. There are two ways of converting cellulose to glucose: chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis. Chemical hydrolysis is performed using inorganic acids under harsh conditions. The hydrolysates thus obtained contain not only fermentable http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews Elsevier

Microbial cellulases: Engineering, production and applications

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Publisher
Elsevier
Copyright
Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd
ISSN
1364-0321
D.O.I.
10.1016/j.rser.2014.01.077
Publisher site
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Abstract

1 Introduction</h5> Cellulose is the major cell-wall polysaccharides of plants. It is entangled with lignin and hemicellulose carbohydrate polymers. Cellulose is a water-insoluble polymer composed of repeated units of β- d -glucopyranose interlinked by β-1,4 glycosidic bonds [1] . In cellulose polymer, each glucan chain length can reach up to 25,000 glucose residues. At the microscopic level 15–45 glucan chains combine to form a microfibril in a regular crystalline arrangement. A group of these microfibrils form a macrofibril or fiber/cellulose fibril or fiber. In its native state cellulose exists as a paracrystalline form with alternative crystalline and amorphous regions. Additionally, in few cases irregularities such as twists or voids exist in the cellulose fibers which increase their total surface area. Due to its crystalline nature cellulose is resistant to degradation [1] .</P>Plant biomass contains significant amount of cellulose which can be exploited as a valuable carbon source for production of value-added chemicals. To attain this task, depolymerization of cellulose into glucose is a prerequisite for microbial fermentation. There are two ways of converting cellulose to glucose: chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis. Chemical hydrolysis is performed using inorganic acids under harsh conditions. The hydrolysates thus obtained contain not only fermentable

Journal

Renewable and Sustainable Energy ReviewsElsevier

Published: May 1, 2014

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