Several recent micro- and nanotechnologies have provided novel methods for biological studies of adherent cells because the small features of these new biotools provide unique capabilities for accessing cells without the need for suspension or lysis. These novel approaches have enabled gentle but effective delivery of molecules into specific adhered target cells, with unprecedented spatial resolution. We review here recent progress in the development of these technologies with an emphasis on in vitro delivery into adherent cells utilizing mechanical penetration or electroporation. We discuss the major advantages and limitations of these approaches and propose possible strategies for improvements. Finally, we discuss the impact of these technologies on biological research concerning cell-specific temporal studies, for example non-destructive sampling and analysis of intracellular molecules.
Trends in Biotechnology – Elsevier
Published: Aug 1, 2016
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