Current Opinion in Biotechnology 2013, 24 :398–404</P>This review comes from a themed issue on Energy biotechnology </P>Edited by Eric Toone and Han de Winde </P>For a complete overview see the Issue and the Editorial </P>Available online 20th April 2013</P>0958-1669/$ – see front matter, © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</P>http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.copbio.2013.03.023 </P>Introduction</h5> Global consumption of liquid transportation fuels amounts to about 2.9 TW and these fuels are currently mainly derived from petroleum, whereas biofuels only account for 2.7% of the total transportation energy (Key World Energy Statistics 2011; URL: http://www.iea.org ). The use of petroleum for transportation results in emission of more than 5 Gt CO 2 , and this represents a major contribution to the total green house gas (GHG) emissions. Currently by far the dominant biofuel is ethanol, which is being produced at 75 billion liters annually, with the majority being produced in the USA (50 billion liters) with corn as the major feedstock. The remainder of the production is concentrated in Brazil with sugar cane as feedstock. The use of biofuels is much debated due to the high costs of the corn-based process as well as the limited reduction in GHG emission by this process compared
Current Opinion in Biotechnology – Elsevier
Published: Jun 1, 2013
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