1 Introduction</h5> Electricity-supply is a basic necessity of the modern age. Water-energy, sea waves, tides, wind, the sun and geo-thermal energy belong amongst the cleaner renewable resources on Earth. Of all the forms represented water-potential is the most important sustainably-oriented form for electricity generation ( Fraenkel et al., 1991 ).</P>Electricity production from hydro-systems is one of the more cost-effective forms of energy technology. Choosing which depends on a number of environmental, technological, and social factors. The more prominent amongst them are the availability of resources, energy-efficiency, the economics of the plant, and technical requirements ( Josée et al., 2004 ). Hydropower plant systems are, according to the installed power of the plant, classified as large, medium, small, mini, micro, nano, and pico systems. Nano-hydro systems are relatively small resources of energy with installed capacities below 10 kW (micro systems are defined below 50 kW), and are therefore suitable for individuals or small groups of users ( Medved and Novak, 2000; Paish, 2002a; Davis, 2003 ). Thanks to better and more easily accessible materials, cheaper control systems, more efficient turbines, and cheap pipe work, conditions from the financial aspect of investment in renewable-energy resources have begun to improve. The
Journal of Cleaner Production – Elsevier
Published: Feb 15, 2014
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