Chromium (Cr) is a highly toxic environmental pollutant that negatively affects plant growth and development. Thus, remediating Cr from soil or increasing plant tolerance against Cr stress is urgent. Organic acids are recognized as agents of phytoremediation and as exogenous protectants, but using maleic acid (MA) to attain these results has not yet been studied. Therefore, our study investigated the effects of MA on Cr uptake and mitigation of Cr toxicity. We treated 8-d-old Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) seedlings with Cr (0.15mM and 0.3mM K2CrO4, 5 days) alone and in combination with MA (0.25mM) in a semi-hydroponic medium. Under Cr stress, plants accumulated Cr in both the roots and shoots in a dose-dependent manner, where the roots showed higher accumulation. Chromium stress reduced the growth and biomass of the Indian mustard plants by reducing water status and photosynthetic pigments, and increased oxidative damage due to generation of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) and methylglyoxal (MG). Chromium stress also interfered with the function of the antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems. However, using MA in the Cr-stressed plants further increased Cr uptake in the roots, but it slightly reduced the translocation of Cr from the roots to the shoots at a lower dose of Cr and significantly at a higher dose. Moreover, MA also increased the other non-protein thiols (NPTs) containing phytochelatin (PC) content of the seedlings, which reduced Cr toxicity. Supplementing the stressed plants with MA upregulated the non-enzymatic antioxidants (ascorbate, AsA; glutathione, GSH); the activities of the enzymatic antioxidants including ascorbate peroxidase (APX), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT); and the enzymes of the glyoxalase system including glyoxalase I (Gly I) and glyoxalase II (Gly II); and finally reduced oxidative damage and increased the chlorophyll content and water status as well the growth and biomass of the plants. Our findings suggested two potential uses of MA: first, enhancing phytoremediation, principally phytostabilization and second, working as an exogenous protectant to enhance Cr tolerance.
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety – Elsevier
Published: Oct 1, 2017
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera