1 Introduction</h5> Mucosal immune response is regarded as the first line of defense since most pathogens invade the human body via mucosal sites ( Neutra and Kozlowski, 2006 ). The mucosal immune responses can be induced by oral, nasal, rectal and vaginal mucosal immunization. Compared with injection of vaccines, mucosal immunity has numerous of advantages, including a very effective mucosal immune response ( Levine, 2000 ), priming both mucosal and systemic immune systems ( Holmgren and Czerkinsky, 2005 ) and generating both IgA and serum IgG antibodies whereas systemic immunization is generally an inefficient way of stimulating mucosal IgA antibodies ( Kunkel and Butcher, 2003; Macpherson et al., 2000 ). Although the nasal, rectal and vaginal routes of administration are able to induce mucosal immune responses, they are less efficient against intestinal infections ( Devriendt et al., 2012; Johansson et al., 2004 ). In contrast, the oral route for vaccine delivery provides effective local mucosal immunity and increases patient compliance ( des Rieux et al., 2006 ). However, oral vaccinations still face some obstacles, such as i) the GI tract with its low gastric pH and proteolytic enzymes is harmful to the fragile antigens, ii) oral vaccines are
International Journal of Pharmaceutics – Elsevier
Published: Oct 1, 2014
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