Obesity is related to an increased risk of developing prostate cancer with high malignancy stages or metastasis. Recent results demonstrated that LOX-1, a receptor associated with obesity and atherosclerosis, is overexpressed in advanced and metastatic prostate cancer. Furthermore, high levels of oxLDL, the main ligand for LOX-1, have been found in patients with advanced prostate cancer. However, the role of LOX-1 in prostate cancer has not been unraveled completely yet. Here, we show that LOX-1 is overexpressed in prostate cancer cells and its activation by oxLDL promotes an epithelial to mesenchymal transition, through of lowered expression of epithelial markers (E-cadherin and plakoglobin) and an increased expression of mesenchymal markers (vimentin, N-cadherin, snail, slug, MMP-2 and MMP-9). Consequently, LOX-1 activation by oxLDL promotes actin cytoskeleton restructuration and MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity inducing prostate cancer cell invasion and migration. Additionally, LOX-1 increased the tumorigenic potential of prostate cancer cells and its expression was necessary for tumor growth in nude mice. In conclusion, our results suggest that oxLDL/LOX-1 could be ones of mechanisms that explain why obese patients with prostate cancer have an accelerated tumor progression and a greater probability of developing metastasis.
Cancer Letters – Elsevier
Published: Feb 1, 2018
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