Available online at www.sciencedirect.com ScienceDirect 1,2 1,2,3 Maureen R Newman and Danielle SW Benoit While experimental bone regeneration approaches commonly different levels of success clinically, there are still signiﬁ- employ cells, technological hurdles prevent translation of these cant technological challenges. therapies. Alternatively, emulating the spatiotemporal cascade of endogenous factors through controlled drug delivery may To achieve translation of cell-based therapies, there are provide superior bone regenerative approaches. Surgically many hurdles to overcome. For bone regeneration, mesen- placed drug depots have clinical indications. Additionally, chymal stem cells (MSCs) are commonly used, as they can noninvasive systemic delivery can be used as needed for differentiate to cells required for bone healing (osteoblasts poorly healing bone injuries. However, a major hurdle for and chondrocytes). However, other cells (e.g., inﬂamma- systemic delivery is poor bone biodistribution of drugs. Thus, tory cells, endothelial cells) that play important roles in peptides, aptamers, and phosphate-rich compounds with bone regeneration may also be included. A challenge to the speciﬁcity toward proteins, cells, and molecules within the use of any cell type is assurance of cellular uniformity. With regenerative bone microenvironment may enable the design of MSCs as an example, the International Society for Cellular targeted carriers with
Current Opinion in Biotechnology – Elsevier
Published: Aug 1, 2016
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