If managed in isolation, coastal and marine protected areas (MPAs) are vulnerable to natural resource development and exploitation occurring outside these areas—in particular, overfishing, alteration and destruction of habitats, and water pollution. Thus, protection of coastal and marine areas—of species, habitats, landscapes, and seascapes—should be integrated into spatial development strategies for larger areas, under the umbrella of integrated coastal and ocean management (ICM). This is typically easier said than done, since the actors involved in MPA networks and in ICM programs are often different, reflecting different cultures, networks of relationships, ministries, and goals and motivations. This article reviews the ecological, social and economic linkages between MPAs and the governance of broader ocean and coastal areas; sets forth nine guiding principles for managing MPAs within an ICM context; reviews work conducted under the Convention on Biological Diversity to operationalize the linkages between ICM and MPAs; and develops strategic guidance for addressing these linkages. The article ends with a call to bring together the diverse communities involved in marine protected areas, coastal and ocean management, and watershed management to collaborate in national-level ocean and coastal planning, including in the designation of networks of marine protected areas.
Ocean & Coastal Management – Elsevier
Published: Jan 1, 2005
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