Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) frequently causes subtle brain injuries in children. Rarely, these injuries can be severe and life threatening. The physiological processes leading to brain injury during DKA are poorly understood. S100B is a calcium-binding protein secreted by astrocytes. Elevated serum S100B levels are documented in several types of brain injuries. S100B may have either neuroprotective or neurotoxic effects, depending upon the concentration. We undertook the current studies to measure alterations in S100B production and secretion during DKA. We measured serum S100B concentrations in juvenile rats during and after DKA, and used immunohistochemistry to measure S100B expression in the hippocampus, cortex and striatum. Compared to levels in both normal and hyperglycemic control rats, serum S100B levels during DKA were significantly reduced. Serum S100B gradually rose after DKA, returning to levels of hyperglycemic controls by 72h. S100B expression in the hippocampus was also significantly reduced 24h after DKA. There were no significant changes in S100B expression in other brain regions. Our findings contrast with those for other types of brain injuries in which both serum S100B levels and astrocyte S100B expression are typically elevated. These data suggest that serum S100B measurement cannot be used as an indicator of brain injury during DKA. Whether reduced S100B production or secretion is involved in the pathogenesis of DKA-related brain injury should be investigated.
Brain Research – Elsevier
Published: Oct 22, 2015
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