<h5>Introduction</h5> Convergent validity in the behavioral sciences exists when multiple theories developed independently, and empirical research conducted by multiple researchers yield similar, if not identical, results. The results have practical significance if they impact the behavior of individuals in the workplace.</P>Goal setting has convergent validity. The results of more than 1,000 studies conducted in a wide range of countries – including Australia, Canada, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States – by multiple investigators provide evidence-based principles for how and how not to use goal setting. This article reviews divergent theories in the behavioral sciences that have converged on the validity of goal setting processes, the mechanisms that explain why these processes have a beneficial effect in work settings, ten evidence-based principles for setting goals and, most important, when to set a learning rather than a performance goal, and the pitfalls to be avoided in doing so.</P><h5>Theories of goal setting</h5> The importance of setting goals to increase job performance and job satisfaction is stressed by five theories of motivation. Maslow's theory of motivation describes a hierarchical set of goals, including those for security, self-esteem and self-actualization, that individuals strive to attain.</P>Likert's system 4 theory
Organizational Dynamics – Elsevier
Published: Jan 1, 2012
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