1 Introduction</h5> Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are gaining recognition as a cleaner alternative to fossil fuel vehicles. Economic viability of PHEVs, such as Toyota Prius, Chevrolet Volt and other electric vehicles are likely to pave the way for their large scale adaptation in smart grid in the near future. The higher penetration of PHEVs not only makes the transportation sector less carbon intensive, but also likely to play a significant role in improving the overall efficiency of power system by playing an active role in demand side management, spinning reserve services and reducing the uncertainty of renewable energy generation. However, it will create significant new load on the distribution network, and their charging and usage is critical for the distribution grid thereby making the integration of PHEVs into the electric grid much more challenging. The promising concept of vehicle-to-grid (V2G) [1,2] , which conceptually allows bi-directional power flow between the vehicle and the grid further adds to the problem complexity and scalability for a modern power system. In this paper, different research problems are identified and the corresponding literature is comprehensively surveyed to bring together various issues and solution techniques.</P>1.1 Related work</h5> There have been recent survey
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews – Elsevier
Published: Feb 1, 2014
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