The paper traces the development of access regulation in the Netherlands, and the parallel process of entering and investment by telecommunications firms. It notes that in 2000, new entrants’ investments were of the same order as those of the incumbent, KPN, in local switching and transmission and in national switching and transmission, while KPN was the main investor in regional switching and transmission. This is consistent with OPTA's policy of unbundling the local loop, which encourages investment in ADSL as well as investment by cable operators in Internet access, and with the incentives created through sharing of termination by Internet service providers for operators to focus their investment at the national level.
Telecommunications Policy – Elsevier
Published: Nov 1, 2003
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