Contamination of military ranges by the use of explosives can lead to irreversible environmental damage, specifically to soil and groundwater. The fate and effects of traditional explosive residues are well understood, while less is known about the impact of Insensitive High Explosives (IHEs) that are currently being brought into military service. Current research has focussed on the investigation of individual constituents of IHE formulations, which may not be representative of real-world scenarios when explosive residues will be deposited together. Therefore, this study investigated the fate and transport of the combined IHE constituents 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN), 1-nitroguanidine (NQ) and 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO) in two UK soil types.Static experiments ran for 9weeks to determine the fate of the combined explosive constituents in soil by monitoring the rate of degradation. Transport was examined by running soil column experiments for 5weeks, with a watering regime equivalent to the average yearly UK rainfall. Both static and soil column experiments confirmed that DNAN and NTO started to degrade within twenty-four hours in soil with high organic content, and were both completely degraded within sixty days. NQ was more stable, with 80% of the original material recovered after sixty days. The major degradation product of DNAN in the test soils was 2-amino-4-nitroanisole (2-ANAN), with trace amounts of 4-amino-2-nitroanisole. NTO was rapidly degraded in soil with high organic content, although no degradation products were identified. Results supported work from literature on the individual constituents DNAN, NQ and NTO suggesting that the three explosives in combination did not interact with each other when in soil. This study should provide a useful insight into the behaviour of three combined Insensitive High Explosive constituents for the predication of soil and water contamination during military training.
Science of the Total Environment – Elsevier
Published: Jun 1, 2018
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera