•Forest disturbances are beginning to show evidence of climate-mediated changes.•Biotic disturbances must be understood to predict responses of future forests.•We reviewed major biotic agents in the Douglas-fir region’s disturbance regime.•Interactions with climate change will likely vary among biotic disturbance agents.•These factors must be characterized by forest type to aid in adaptive management.
Forest Ecology and Management – Elsevier
Published: Feb 1, 2018
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