1 Introduction</h5> Expectations are high for the development and commercialisation of second-generation biofuels as a sustainable way of meeting renewable transport fuel policy targets [8,13,49] . Set up in response to sustainability concerns over first-generation biofuels derived from food crops, the UK Gallagher Review  called for policies to support biofuels based on non-food feedstocks including perennial crops (miscanthus and short rotation coppice willow) and agricultural residues. In light of controversy over the impacts of first-generation biofuels on food security and indirect land-use change (iLUC), the European Commission proposed amendments to the Renewable Energy and Fuel Quality Directives to cap the share of food-based biofuels in its 2020 renewable transport fuel target and to allow only advanced (non-food) biofuels in the post-2020 framework, though, at the time of writing, the changes are yet to be ratified  .</P>Some suggest that second-generation advanced biofuels are unlikely to pose any significant ethical or social challenges (e.g., [6,35] ). However, others recognise the need for more detailed investigation of potential challenges [3,32,43] . The Gallagher Review acknowledged that advanced biofuel technologies may have limitations depending on the way they were actually developed and implemented. Established to support research into advanced biofuel
Biomass and Bioenergy – Elsevier
Published: Nov 1, 2015
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