Glycoside hydrolases are ubiquitous enzymes involved in a diverse array of biological processes, from the breakdown of biomass, through to viral invasion and cellular signalling. Endoglucanase Cel5A from Bacillus agaradhaerens , classified into glycoside hydrolase family 5, has been studied in a catalytically inactive crystal form at low pH conditions, in which native and complex structures revealed the importance of ring distortion during catalysis. Here, we present the structure of Cel5A in a new crystal form obtained at higher pH values in which the enzyme is active “in-crystal”. Native, cellotriosyl-enzyme intermediate and β- d -cellobiose structures were solved at 1.95, 1.75 and 2.1 Å resolution, respectively. These structures reveal two classes of conformational change: those caused by crystal-packing and pH, with others induced upon substrate binding. At pH 7 a histidine residue, His206, implicated in substrate-binding and catalysis, but previously far removed from the substrate-binding cleft, moves over 10 Å into the active site cleft in order to interact with the substrate in the +2 subsite. Occupation of the −1 subsite by substrate induces a loop closure to optimise protein-ligand interactions. Cel5A, along with the unrelated family 45 and family 6 cellulases, provides further evidence of substantial conformational change in response to ligand binding for this class of hydrolytic enzyme.
Journal of Molecular Biology – Elsevier
Published: Mar 31, 2000
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