1 Introduction</h5> Biomass is regarded as the most promising alternative to fossil fuels, given that when it is properly exploited it does not contribute to a net rise in the level of CO 2 in the atmosphere. Furthermore, it is the only renewable source of fixed carbon that can be used for generating both heat and power and converted into liquid, solid, and gaseous fuels and chemicals [1,2] .</P>Gasification is considered to be one of the most effective methods for the upgrading of biomass because the gas produced can be used directly as fuel or as renewable raw material for the large scale production of valuable chemical products and fuels.</P>The main advantage of using steam as gasifying agent lies in the production of gas with a high hydrogen concentration, and the main drawback is the highly endothermic nature of the process. The steam gasification of biomass has been studied in a wide range of reactor configurations (fixed bed, fluidized bed, entrained bed, vertical shaft, moving grate furnace, rotary kiln and plasma reactor)  . The fluidised bed is the most commonly used technology and the one with the highest scaling up development [4–13] , with the common solution
Chemical Engineering Journal – Elsevier
Published: Feb 1, 2014
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