Bleached rice bran wax (BRX), which is a by-product of rice bran oil purification, was used in this study. Bleached rice bran wax organogels (BRXO) were produced by mixing rice bran oil with BRX at 3%, 5%, 7% and 9 wt%. The crystal morphology and polymorphisms of BRXO were similar to bulk wax. BRXO crystal morphology is needle-like and fibrous. Crystalline BRXO has a structure with an orthorhombic sub-cell. The DSC thermographs showed two melting and crystallization profiles. BRXO formed gels at 5, 7 and 9 wt%. The gelation time decreased with an increase in BRX levels. The oil-binding capacity of BRXO at 7 and 9% BRX levels was higher than that at 98%. Texture parameters (firmness, hardness and adhesiveness), thermal behaviours (melting and crystallization behaviour) and SFC varied significantly with BRX level. The water-in-oil emulsion was prepared by using 9% BRXO (EO9). EO9 showed good stability compared to emulsion without the addition of organogels (E). Margarine in cookies was replaced with EO9. The hardness and colour of cookie dough and cookies were significantly affected by level of replacement, while the diameter, width, and spread factor were not significantly different. The results showed that BRX has feasibility for producing the organogels and water-in-oil emulsions, which have potential for margarine replacement in cookies.
Journal of Food Engineering – Elsevier
Published: Dec 1, 2017
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