Due to frequent and serious waterlog and environmental pollution in cities in recent years, urban stormwater management (USM) has become an essential issue of urban sustainable development in China. Low Impact Development (LID) technologies are effective and popular measures of USM, and can be used to reduce urban waterlog and the associated environmental pollution. In this paper, in order to identify an optimal strategy of LID technologies based on economic efficiencies and environmental performances, the construction costs and environmental benefits of the four LID technologies (including grass swales, bioretention cells, green roofs, and permeable pavement) were analyzed. Then, due to the uncertain feature of rainfall, concentration of pollutants and many social-economic factors, an inexact fuzzy chance-constrained programming (IFCCP) model was developed. Multiple uncertainties that can be expressed as interval parameters, fuzzy sets, and stochastic distribution can be addressed effectively and incorporated directly into the modeling process. Based on the analysis of the precipitation probability distribution and land use data, the developed model was applied to a university campus with relatively high building density and plot ratio in Beijing. Then, optimal solutions of multiple precipitation probabilities (pm) under varying USM goals were obtained. The four LID technologies were chosen to meet multiple USM goals based on multiple pm values. When pm=0.1,0.05,0.02 and 0.015, the total construction investments would be 1.46 to 4.66, 1.46 to 5.25, 2.31 to 8.54 and 3.95 to 12.7 million yuan, respectively. The relationship between construction costs and pm represented the relationship between economic benefit and system risk. The results indicated that USM was influenced by the rainfall capacity, construction costs would increase with the increase of precipitation, and the risks of constraint violation would decrease as the construction costs increase. When considering the four LID technologies during the planning stage of USM, the preferred selection order would be bioretention cells, permeable pavements, grass swales and green roofs. Therefore, the solutions under each pm level could provide the references for desired USM plans.
Journal of Cleaner Production – Elsevier
Published: May 1, 2018
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