1 Introduction</h5> Predatory animals are commonly placed into one of two categories depending on the variety of prey that they include in their diet. Specialist predators, on the one hand, consume a narrow range of prey and may be critically dependent on just one or two prey species ( Erlinge et al., 1984 ). Such predators often have morphological or physiological adaptations that increase their hunting efficiency and ability to handle or process particular prey, but decrease their efficiency in tackling alternative prey. Examples include ant-mimicking spiders that so resemble their formicid prey in appearance, odour and behaviour that they can raid ant colonies with little risk ( Castanho and Oliveira, 2009 ), frog-eating bats that use the specific calls of anurans to target their prey ( Ryan, 2011 ), and myrmecophagous animals that use specialised structures (e.g. spade-like digging claws, long, sticky tongues) to expose and then consume subterranean termites or ants ( Redford, 1987 ). On the other hand, generalist predators have relatively broad diets ( Erlinge et al., 1984 ). Some generalists eat different prey types in rough proportion to their availability in the environment, consuming them either via bulk ingestion (e.g. baleen whales that
Applied Animal Behaviour Science – Elsevier
Published: Dec 1, 2015
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