1 <h5>Objectives</h5> A central tenet of the European welfare state has been the importance of state responsibility for the social security of the entire population  . The concept of social security has been broadly understood as encompassing a range of taxes, income transfers, and in-kind service provision programs that, taken together, guarantee a reasonable living standard to each citizen. While the state has responsibility for the overall design and comprehensiveness of these social security arrangements, the operational mechanisms often involve a complex mix of regional and local as well as national government, not-for-profit private, and, for some services, for-profit private entities. A standard criticism of welfare state programs has been that they are not well coordinated and, therefore, are less efficient in their overall operation than they could be  . The overall costs of the health services and the related income transfers are seldom examined simultaneously. The concept of health security focuses on a specific subset of this broader social security framework. Health security can be defined as incorporating those funding and service elements of a social security system that either protect against or alleviate the consequences of trauma, illness, or accident. In advanced industrial nations,
Health Policy – Elsevier
Published: Feb 1, 2004
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