Photoluminescence (PL), electroluminescence (EL), and dark lock-in thermography are collected during stressing of a CdTe module under one-Sun light at an elevated temperature of 100°C. The PL imaging system is simple and economical. The PL images show differing degrees of degradation across the module and are less sensitive to effects of shunting and resistance that appear on the EL images. Regions of varying degradation are chosen based on avoiding pre-existing shunt defects. These regions are evaluated using time-of-flight secondary ion-mass spectrometry and Kelvin probe force microscopy. Reduced PL intensity correlates to increased Cu concentration at the front interface. Numerical modeling and measurements agree that the increased Cu concentration at the junction also correlates to a reduced space charge region.
Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells – Elsevier
Published: May 1, 2018
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