An investigation of the estimation of leaf biochemistry in open tree crop canopies using high-spatial hyperspectral remote sensing imagery is presented. Hyperspectral optical indices related to leaf chlorophyll content were used to test different radiative transfer modelling assumptions in open canopies where crown, soil and shadow components were separately targeted using 1 m spatial resolution ROSIS hyperspectral imagery. Methods for scaling-up of hyperspectral single-ratio indices such as R 750 / R 710 and combined indices such as MCARI, TCARI and OSAVI were studied to investigate the effects of scene components on indices calculated from pure crown pixels and from aggregated soil, shadow and crown reflectance. Methods were tested on 1-m resolution hyperspectral ROSIS datasets acquired over two olive groves in southern Spain during the HySens 2002 campaign conducted by the German Aerospace Center (DLR). Leaf-level biochemical estimation using 1-m ROSIS data when targeting pure olive tree crowns employed PROSPECT-SAILH radiative transfer simulation. At lower spatial resolution, therefore with significant effects of soil and shadow scene components on the aggregated pixels, a canopy model to account for such scene components had to be used for a more appropriate estimation approach for leaf biochemical concentration. The linked models PROSPECT-SAILH-FLIM improved the estimates of chlorophyll concentration from these open tree canopies, demonstrating that crown-derived relationships between hyperspectral indices and biochemical constituents cannot be readily applied to hyperspectral imagery of lower spatial resolutions due to large soil and shadow effects. Predictive equations built on a MCARI/OSAVI scaled-up index through radiative transfer simulation minimized soil background variations in these open canopies, demonstrating superior performance compared to other single-ratio indices previously shown as good indicators of chlorophyll concentration in closed canopies. The MCARI/OSAVI index was demonstrated to be less affected than TCARI/OSAVI by soil background variations when calculated from the pure crown component even at the typically low LAI orchard and grove canopies.
Remote Sensing of Environment – Elsevier
Published: Apr 30, 2004
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