•The landowners select scattered trees based on their shading capability, maintaining a highly diverse community of trees.•The preference for large trees and clearing of small ones differentiate forest patches and scattered tree communities.•The positive effect of the scattered trees on seed rain and sapling regeneration depends on the distance from forest remnants.•Scatter trees improve microclimate and reduce soil compaction.•Only few tree species are able to regenerate under the scattered trees, although many more are dispersed in the sites.
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment – Elsevier
Published: Dec 1, 2017
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