The world has dominated by automation, wireless communication and various electronic equipments, which has led to the most undesirable offshoots like electromagnetic (EM) pollution. The rationale is environmental concern and the necessity to develop EM absorbing materials. This paper reviews the state of the art of designing polymer based nanocomposites containing nanoscopic particles with high electrical conductivity and complex microwave properties for enhanced EM attenuation. Given the brevity of this review article, herein we have summarized the high frequency millimetre wave absorbing properties of polymer nanocomposites consisting of various nanoparticles that either reflect or absorb microwave radiation like electrically conducting carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene nanosheets (GNs), high dielectric constant ceramic nanoparticles that show relaxation loss in the microwave frequency and magnetic metal and ferrite nanoparticles that absorb microwave radiation through natural resonance, eddy current and hysteresis losses. Furthermore, we have stressed the necessity and impact of hybrid nanoparticles consisting of magnetic and dielectric nanoparticles along with conducting inclusions like CNT and GNs in this review. Electromagnetic interference (EMI) theory and necessary criterion for attenuation has been briefly discussed. The emphasis is made on various mechanisms towards EM attenuation controlled by these nanoparticles. Various structures developed using polymer nanocomposites like bulk, foam and layered structures and their effect on EM attenuation has been elaborately discussed. In addition, various covalent/non-covalent modifications on nanoparticles have been juxtaposed in context to EM attenuation. In addition, we have highlighted important facets and direction for enhancing the microwave attenuation.
Polymer – Elsevier
Published: Feb 10, 2016
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