Hepcidin and metallothioneins as molecular base for sex-dependent differences in clinical course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in chronic iron overload

Hepcidin and metallothioneins as molecular base for sex-dependent differences in clinical course... Multiple sclerosis is a chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system characterised by inflammatory and degenerative changes. It is considered that disease arises from the influence of environmental factors on genetically susceptible individuals. Recent researches, using magnetic resonance imaging, connected iron deposits in different brain regions with demyelinating process in multiple sclerosis patients. Although iron is an essential trace element important for many biological functions it could be harmful because iron excess can induce the production of reactive oxygen species, development of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation which leads to demyelination. In experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model, the most common experimental animal model for multiple sclerosis, we recently found that chronic iron overload influences the clinical course of disease in Dark Agouti rats. In female rats iron overload accelerated the onset of disease, while in male rats it accelerated the progression of disease and increased mortality rate. We hypothesize that those differences arise on molecular level in different expression of stress response proteins hepcidin and metallothioneins in male and female iron overloaded rats. They are both upregulated by metal ions in both sexes. Hepcidin is additionally upregulated by estrogen in female rats and therefore causes higher degradation of iron exporter ferroportin and sequestration of iron in the cells, lowering the possibility for the development of oxidative stress. Antioxidative effect of metallothioneins could be increased in female rats because of their ability to reversibly exchange metal ions with the estrogen receptor. In case of iron excess metallothioneins release zinc, which is normally bound to them. Zinc binds to estrogen receptor and leaves metallothioneins binding domains free for iron, causing at least provisional cytoprotective effect. To test this hypothesis, we propose to determine and compare serum levels of hepcidin and estrogen using ELISA essay as well as expression and distribution of acute stress response proteins hepcidin and metallothioneins, iron and estrogen receptor in the brain and spinal cord tissue using immunohistochemistry in control and chronic iron overloaded male and female rats in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model. It would be also possible to perform the same immunohistochemistry in the brain tissue of multiple sclerosis patients post mortem. The results of experiments could contribute to better understanding of cytoprotective mechanisms in chronic iron overload that could have possible therapeutic applications in iron disturbances. In order to elucidate whether common measure of systemic iron status, like ferritin, haemoglobin concentration and transferrin saturation levels, may be used to distinguish physiologic from potentially harmful iron levels in local disease, for example multiple sclerosis and Still’s disease, well-designed clinical trials would be of great interest. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Medical Hypotheses Elsevier

Hepcidin and metallothioneins as molecular base for sex-dependent differences in clinical course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in chronic iron overload

Loading next page...
 
/lp/elsevier/hepcidin-and-metallothioneins-as-molecular-base-for-sex-dependent-baJTmfA9A0
Publisher
Elsevier
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd
ISSN
0306-9877
eISSN
1532-2777
D.O.I.
10.1016/j.mehy.2017.07.022
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Multiple sclerosis is a chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system characterised by inflammatory and degenerative changes. It is considered that disease arises from the influence of environmental factors on genetically susceptible individuals. Recent researches, using magnetic resonance imaging, connected iron deposits in different brain regions with demyelinating process in multiple sclerosis patients. Although iron is an essential trace element important for many biological functions it could be harmful because iron excess can induce the production of reactive oxygen species, development of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation which leads to demyelination. In experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model, the most common experimental animal model for multiple sclerosis, we recently found that chronic iron overload influences the clinical course of disease in Dark Agouti rats. In female rats iron overload accelerated the onset of disease, while in male rats it accelerated the progression of disease and increased mortality rate. We hypothesize that those differences arise on molecular level in different expression of stress response proteins hepcidin and metallothioneins in male and female iron overloaded rats. They are both upregulated by metal ions in both sexes. Hepcidin is additionally upregulated by estrogen in female rats and therefore causes higher degradation of iron exporter ferroportin and sequestration of iron in the cells, lowering the possibility for the development of oxidative stress. Antioxidative effect of metallothioneins could be increased in female rats because of their ability to reversibly exchange metal ions with the estrogen receptor. In case of iron excess metallothioneins release zinc, which is normally bound to them. Zinc binds to estrogen receptor and leaves metallothioneins binding domains free for iron, causing at least provisional cytoprotective effect. To test this hypothesis, we propose to determine and compare serum levels of hepcidin and estrogen using ELISA essay as well as expression and distribution of acute stress response proteins hepcidin and metallothioneins, iron and estrogen receptor in the brain and spinal cord tissue using immunohistochemistry in control and chronic iron overloaded male and female rats in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model. It would be also possible to perform the same immunohistochemistry in the brain tissue of multiple sclerosis patients post mortem. The results of experiments could contribute to better understanding of cytoprotective mechanisms in chronic iron overload that could have possible therapeutic applications in iron disturbances. In order to elucidate whether common measure of systemic iron status, like ferritin, haemoglobin concentration and transferrin saturation levels, may be used to distinguish physiologic from potentially harmful iron levels in local disease, for example multiple sclerosis and Still’s disease, well-designed clinical trials would be of great interest.

Journal

Medical HypothesesElsevier

Published: Sep 1, 2017

References

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.


DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Search

Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly

Organize

Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.

Access

Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

DeepDyve

Freelancer

DeepDyve

Pro

Price

FREE

$49/month
$360/year

Save searches from
Google Scholar,
PubMed

Create lists to
organize your research

Export lists, citations

Read DeepDyve articles

Abstract access only

Unlimited access to over
18 million full-text articles

Print

20 pages / month

PDF Discount

20% off