Heavy metals and bromine (Br) derived from organic and industrialized fertilizers can be absorbed, transported and accumulated into parts of plants ingested by humans. This study aimed to evaluate in an experiment conducted under no-tillage for 10 years, totaling 14 applications of pig slurry manure (PS), pig deep-litter (PL), dairy slurry (DS) and mineral fertilizer (MF), the heavy metal and Br contents in soil and in whether the grains produced by corn (Zea mays L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under these conditions could result in risk to human health. The total contents of As, Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Br were analyzed in samples of fertilizers, waste, soil, shoots and grains of corn and wheat. Afterwards, enrichment factor (EF), accumulation factor (AF), health risk index (HRI), target hazard quotient (THQ) and target cancer risk (TCR) were determined. Mineral fertilizer exhibited the highest As and Cr content, while the highest levels of Cu and Zn were found in animal waste. The contents of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in soil were below the limits established by environmental regulatory agencies. However, a significant enrichment factor was found for Cu in soil with a history of PL application. Furthermore, high Zn contents were found in shoots and grains of corn and wheat, especially when the plants were grown in soil with organic waste application. Applications of organic waste and mineral fertilizer provided high HRI and THQ for Br and Zn, posing risks to human health. The intake of corn and wheat fertilized with pig slurry manure, swine deep bed, liquid cattle manure and industrialized mineral fertilizer did not present TCR.
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety – Elsevier
Published: May 30, 2018
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