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Hazard assessment of United Arab Emirates (UAE) incense smoke

1 Introduction</h5> 1.1 Background</h5> Burning incense is a popular practice inside residential homes, in shops, and in places of worship in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), the Arabian Gulf Peninsula, and other countries around the world ( Fang et al., 2002; Jetter et al., 2002; Yeatts et al., 2012; Yeatts et al., 2012 ). Incense is burned weekly in 94% of Emirati households ( Yeatts et al., 2012 ); it is a cultural practice, to perfume both clothing and the home, and to remove the odors of fish or other food smells associated with indoor cooking.</P>Indoor air pollution and its sources have become of increasing concern to due to the limited ventilation rate as compared to outdoors, and the fact that people spend over 90% of their time indoors ( Klepeis et al., 2001 ). Indoor air pollution resulting from specific indoor activities such as cooking or smoking cigarettes has been characterized ( Löfroth et al., 1991 ); however incense emissions as a type of indoor air pollutant have not been well characterized. In a low ventilation area such as a home, it is hypothesized that smoke emitted from incense would result in high concentrations of harmful chemical http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Science of the Total Environment Elsevier
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