Biomaterials-based approaches to harnessing the immune and inflammatory responses to potentiate wound healing hold important promise. Bone fracture healing is characterized by an acute inflammatory phase, followed by a transition to a regenerative and repair phase. In this study, we developed genipin-crosslinked gelatin microspheres designed to be preferentially degraded by inflammatory (M1) macrophages. Highly crosslinked (>90%) microspheres allowed efficient incorporation of bioactive bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), a potent stimulator of osteogenesis in progenitor cells, via electrostatic interactions. Release of BMP2 was directly correlated with degradation of the gelatin matrix. Exposure of microspheres to polarized murine macrophages showed that degradation was significantly higher in the presence of M1 macrophages, relative to alternatively activated (M2) macrophages and unpolarized controls. Microsphere degradation in the presence of non-inflammatory cells resulted in very low degradation rates. The expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of MMP (TIMPs) by macrophages were consistent with the observed phenotype-dependent degradation rates. Indirect co-culture of BMP2-loaded microspheres and macrophages with isolated adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) showed that M1 macrophages produced the strongest osteogenic response, comparable to direct supplementation of the culture medium with BMP2. Controlled release systems that are synchronized with the inflammatory response have the potential to provide better spatiotemporal control of growth factor delivery and therefore may improve the outcomes of recalcitrant wounds.
Biomaterials – Elsevier
Published: Apr 1, 2018
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 12 million articles from more than
10,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Read as many articles as you need. Full articles with original layout, charts and figures. Read online, from anywhere.
Keep up with your field with Personalized Recommendations and Follow Journals to get automatic updates.
It’s easy to organize your research with our built-in tools.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera