Following exposure to stress, cortisol is secreted from the adrenal cortex under the control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis). Central in the regulation of the HPA-axis is a two tied corticosteroid-receptor system, comprised of high and low affinity receptors, the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), respectively. In addition, these corticosteroid receptors mediate the effects of cortisol during stress on both central and peripheral targets. Cortisol modulates gene-expression of corticosteroid-responsive genes, with the effect lasting from hours to days. Mutations in the GR -gene are being associated with corticosteroid resistance and haematological malignancies, although these mutations are relatively rare and probably not a common cause of these diseases. However, several GR -gene variants and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the GR -gene have been identified which are relatively common in the human population. The GRβ-variant, for example, has been proposed to influence corticosteroid-sensitivity and most evidence has been derived from the immune system and in particular asthma. With respect to polymorphisms, a BclI restriction fragment polymorphism and a Asp363Ser have been described, which not only influence the regulation of the HPA-axis, but are also associated with changes in metabolism and cardiovascular control. These associations of a GR -gene polymorphism with metabolism and cardivascular control, and also with the regulation of the HPA-axis, indicates an important underlying role of cortisol in the etiology of these complex disorders. Therefore, we propose that a common underlying defect in these complex disorders is a disregulation of the HPA-axis, especially during stress. The clinical implication is that the regulation of the HPA-axis should be envisioned as a primary target of new drugs for the treatment of stress-related disorders.
The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology – Elsevier
Published: Jun 1, 2002
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera
Read and print from thousands of top scholarly journals.
Already have an account? Log in
Bookmark this article. You can see your Bookmarks on your DeepDyve Library.
Copy and paste the desired citation format or use the link below to download a file formatted for EndNote
EndNoteExport to EndNote
ok to continue