This paper aims at developing an innovative approach to characterize the char residue of an intumescent coating obtained after a UL1709 furnace test. The intumescent formulation is based on an epoxy resin and contains numerous additives including zinc borate, ammonium polyphosphate and silicate fibers. The purpose is to characterize the numerous reactions that can occur upon burning using crossed methods including Electron Probe Micro-Analysis (EPMA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and 1D/2D solid state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). In particular, it emphasizes the potential of the advanced NMR technique namely two-dimensional Dipolar Heteronuclear Multiple Quantum Correlation (2D D-HMQC) NMR. As a result, EPMA evidenced that B/P and B/Si are located in the same domain suggesting the formation of boron-phosphorus and/or boron-silicone containing compounds on the sample surface. H3BO3 was identified by XRD as a main crystalline specie, additional species (e.g. SiO2, Zn4O(BO2)6) were also identified. The borate, silicate and phosphate chemical species were then characterized using 1D NMR but no definitive assignments could be given. To specify those assignments, 2D D-HMQC NMR was performed and the formation of amorphous borophosphates and borosilicates was evidenced emphasizing the chemical reactivity between the ingredients of the formulation. It was suggested that these species allow reinforcing the char and improving the fire protective properties of the coatings. This work highlights the particular interest of advanced NMR technique, which provides unique information on the characterization of intumescent char.
Polymer Degradation and Stability – Elsevier
Published: Jul 1, 2018
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